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Dr. Andrew Rynne
MD
Dr. Andrew Rynne

Family Physician

Exp 50 years

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Article Home Adult and Senior Health Adult ADHD

Adult ADHD

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Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a neuropsychiatric condition presenting with excessive inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness.

 

Causes and risk factors  

The cause for adult ADHD as with children, are still unknown. It’s due to abnormal functioning of neurotransmitters and chemical messengers in brain.

Risk factors

  • Child hood ADHD
  • Family history of ADHD
  • Premature births
  • Smoking and alcohol consumption in pregnancy

 Clinical types

  • Inattentive type
  • Hyperactive/impulsive type
  • Combined

 Clinical signs and symptoms

Inattentive type ADHD type-1

Hyperactive type ADHD-2

Procrastination

Chooses highly active and stimulating jobs

Indecision

Avoids low activity work and sedentary life styles

Difficulty recalling and organizing things

May choose long working hours and even 2 jobs

Poor time management

Get easily bored and impatient

Difficulty initiating and even completing tasks

Gets easily irritated and frustrated

Difficulty multitasking

Loses temper easily

Difficulty shifting attention from one task to other

Impulsive and snap decisions and irresponsible behaviors

 

Effects of adult ADHD

  • Health: Results in compulsive eating or reaching for unhygienic and unhealthy foods, alcohol and drug abuse or forgetting medication for a chronic condition
  • Work and finances: Difficulty concentrating, completing tasks. Managing finances may also be a concern.
  • Relationships: As there are problems in organizing and planning relationships can be affected

Treatment

Psychotherapy

Marital and individual counseling and self-help groups are usually combined with pharmacotherapy and skill training.

  • Psychotherapy helps in learning time and management skills
  • It also helps patients to overcome low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression.

Pharmacotherapy in adult ADHD

  • Methylphenidate
  • Pemoline
  • Dextroamphetamine
  • Antidepressants like Imipramine, Nortryptline, Bupropion

Methylphenidate (Ritalin) and Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine) are the most effective drugs in improving attention and concentration, and in reducing impulsivity in adults with adult ADHD.

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