What is Ritalin?

Methylphenidate (trade names Concerta, Methylin, Medikinet, Ritalin, Equasym XL, Quillivant XR, Metadate) is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and narcolepsy. Methylphenidate has been studied and researched for over 50 years and has a very good efficacy and safety record for the treatment of ADHD. The original patent was owned by CIBA, now Novartis Corporation. It was first licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1955 for treating what was then known as hyperactivity.

Prescribed to patients beginning in 1960, the drug has become increasingly heavily prescribed since the 1990s, when the diagnosis of ADHD itself became more widely accepted. Between 2007 and 2012 methylphenidate prescriptions increased by 50% in Britain and in 2013 global methylphenidate consumption increased to 2.4 billion doses, a 66% increase compared to the year before. The US continues to account for more than 80% of global consumption. While some people fear that methylphenidate is being over-prescribed without enough research into its harmful effects, others see it as a useful medication for relieving ADHD with few side effects.

ADHD and other similar conditions are believed to be linked to sub-performance of the dopamine and norepinephrine functions in the brain, primarily in the prefrontal cortex, responsible for self-regulatory function (e.g., inhibition, motivation, and memory) and executive function (e.g., reasoning, organizing, problem solving, and planning). Methylphenidate's mechanism of action involves the inhibition of catecholamine reuptake, primarily as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Methylphenidate acts by blocking the dopamine transporter and norepinephrine transporter, leading to increased concentrations of dopamine and norepinephrine within the synaptic cleft. This effect in turn leads to increased neurotransmission of dopamine and norepinephrine. Methylphenidate is also a 5HT1A receptor agonist.

Questions and answers on "Ritalin"

hi I am 14 and i have ADHD, I take Ritalin La medicine for it i'm in 9th grade but in 2nd and 3d grade i was diagnosed with it and i cant remember...

doctor1 MD

Long term memory also depends on the retrieval strategies which are adopted. Maybe your coding skills for the memory were not up to the mark in...

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My 7yr old son is currently on ritalin 20 mg er only during school hours... he does not eat at all during the say and suffers from reflux because...

doctor1 MD

Thank for asking to HCM
If I would be his Doctor then I would never prescribed any medicine to him instead I would encourage him for eating,...

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Hi, may I answer your health queries right now ? Please type your query here...my teenage daughter who is in otherwise good health, and who has...

doctor1 MD

Dear Ritalin is used in attention deficit disorder , most common side effect of Ritalin is pain in the cheat , breathing difficulty . these...

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