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Dr. Andrew Rynne
MD
Dr. Andrew Rynne

Family Physician

Exp 50 years

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Article Home Adult and Senior Health Vipoma

Vipoma

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VIPoma is a endocrine tumor which secrete excessive amounts of VIP(Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide) which causes a distinct syndrome characterized by large volume diarrhea , Hypokalemia and dehydration.

  

The other names for the same syndrome are these below:

1) Vasoactive intestinal peptide-producing tumor

2) Pancreatic endocrine tumor

3) Verner-Morrison syndrme

4) Pancreatic cholera

5) WDHA syndrome    Watery diarrhea , hypokalemia and achlorhydria. 

Causes   

VIPoma causes cells in the pancreas to produce high levels of a hormone called vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP).

This hormone increases secretions from the intestines and relaxes some of the smooth muscles in the GI system.

 

The cause is not known.

 

VIPomas are usually diagnosed in adults, most commonly at age 50.

Women are more likely to be affected than men.

This cancer is rare, affecting an estimated 1 in 10 million people per year.

Symptoms  

  •      Watery diarrhea (often massive amounts)
  •      Abdominal pain and cramping
  •      Flushing or redness of the face
  •      Nausea
  •      Weight loss 

Watey diarrohea(100 %), hypokalemia (80-100%),dehydration(83%),hypochlorhydria(54-76%) and flushing (20%). 

Signs :

  •      Dehydration
  •      High volume of diarrhea (even without eating)
  •      Low stomach acid (achlorhydria)
  •      Low blood potassium (hypokalemia), which can cause leg cramps 

Diagnostic  tests include: 

  •      CT scan
  •      MRI
  •      Stool examination for cause of diarrhea and electrolyte levels
  •      Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the blood

Treatment :

The first goal of treatment is to correct dehydration.

Fluids are often given through a vein (intravenous fluids) to replace fluids lost in diarrhea. 

The next goal is to slow the diarrhea. Some medications can help control diarrhea.

Ocreotide, which is a man-made form of a natural hormone(Somatostatin analouge), blocks the action of VIP. 

The best chance for a cure is surgery to remove the tumor.

If the tumor has not spread to other organs, surgery can often cure it. 

Complications    

Cancer spread (metastasis)

Cardiac arrest from electrolyte imbalances

Dehydration

Prognosis:  

Surgery can usually cure VIPomas.

However, in one-third to one-half of patients, the tumors have spread by the time of diagnosis and are not curable.

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