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Clomifene (INN) or clomiphene (USAN and former BAN) or Clomid or Clomifert is a selective estrogen receptor modulator
(SERM) that increases production of gonadotropins by inhibiting negative feedback on the hypothalamus. It is used mainly for ovarian stimulation
in female infertility
due to anovulation (e.g., infertility in polycystic ovary syndrome
). Clomifene citrate is marketed under various trade names including Clomid, Serophene, and Milophene.
Common adverse drug reactions associated with the use of clomifene (≥1% of patients) include: vasomotor flushes (or hot flashes ), abdominal discomfort, visual blurring (dose-dependent), and/or reversible ovarian enlargement and cyst formation. Infrequent adverse effects (0.1–1% of patients) include: abnormal uterine bleeding, nausea, and/or vomiting. Rare adverse effects (
Clomifene can lead to multiple ovulation, hence increasing the chance of twins (10% of births instead of the normal ~1%). In comparison to treatment with purified FSH, the rate of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome
is low. There may be an increased risk of ovarian cancer and weight gain. Some patients may experience vivid and/or disturbing dreams.
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