Human cases due to non-bite exposures to rabies are very rare. Scratches, abrasions, open wounds, and mucous membranes contaminated with saliva or other potentially infectious material (such as brain tissue) from a rabid animal constitute non-bite exposures. Inhalation of aerosolised rabies virus
is also a potential non-bite route of exposure, but other than laboratory workers, most people are unlikely to encounter aerosolised rabies virus. There are no published studies that have demonstrated the presence of rabies virus in cow's milk. Although transmission of rabies virus from consuming unpasteurised milk from an infected animal is theoretically possible, no human has ever been reported to develop rabies via this route. Milk that has been pasteurised/boiled presents no risk for rabies virus transmission.