more than likely the pain came from the fact that it was your first time. Even being gentle, it will still be a somewhat traumatic experience, but it should not have been to painful.
A question for you, were you properly aroused? (i.e. "wet") or did you use any lubrication for this? saliva, lube, or anything else?
if you were not lubricated, it would have been a dry and raw experience and would be even more painful than just your first time.
If your hymen
was broken, often you will have copious amounts of blood, or even start your period early due to the body changing to suit that function. odds are if you are having to ask, this probably did not break your hymen, however, it could have been previously broken and still cause pain even without it. or it could have even just been partially broken in the past causing scarring to it when it healed that would add to the pain. Anything can break it, from a tampon, to a fall, to riding a horse or many other physical activities.
Hope i helped!