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What is the function of natural killer cells?

DOCTOR OF THE MONTH - Dec 2012
Dec 2012
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General & Family Physician
Practicing since : 2012
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Question
the disease botulism has a mortality rate as high as what percentage? Also approximately how many cases of botulism are reported each year in the United States of which are what percentage of food borne and what percentage are of infant botulism and the remainder from wounds. What is the function of natural killer cells???
Posted Sun, 20 Oct 2013 in General Health
 
 
Answered by Dr. Nsah Bernard 59 minutes later
Brief Answer:
NK cells play role in innate immunity

Detailed Answer:
Hello XXXX XXXXXXX

Thanks for posting on XXXXXXX

I will like to be simple in my explanation.
Natural killer cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocytes (white blood cells that are toxic to other cell-like organisms or cells). They provide rapid response to viral infection and respond to tumor formation in about 3 days after infection. Typically immune cells detect MHC (major histocompatibility complex is a substance found on cell surfaces) presented on infected cell surfaces, triggering cytokine release, causing lysis or apoptosis or cell destruction.
In summary, they help to detect unwanted microbes for further destruction before they can cause any further harm to the system. As it is termed NK cells, they are naturally existing in your body system (forming the immune system).

As for information on botulism, mortality rates vary based on the age of the patient and the type of botulism. Foodborne botulism carries an overall mortality rate of 5-10%. Wound botulism carries a mortality rate that ranges from 15-17%. The risk of death due to infant botulism is usually less than 1%.
Wound botulism is more common in males while foodborne botulism has no sexual predilection.
In the United States, approximately 154 cases of botulism are reported annually to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Infant botulism accounts for 75% of all botulism.
The incidence of foodborne botulism is approximately 24 cases per year. The incidence of wound botulism is 3 cases per year while that of infant is 71 cases per year, with a mean age of 3 months.

Hope I was able to answer your questions and wish you the best.
Dr. Nsah
Above answer was peer-reviewed by
 
Follow-up: What is the function of natural killer cells? 32 minutes later
Do Natural Killer cells receive the processed antigen from the monocytes or macrophages?
Do the Natural Killer cells manufacture antibodies for future use?
Do NK cells provide resistance for infection?
Do NK cells play a huge role in fighting against parasite infections?
do natural killer cells receive the processed antigen from the monocytes or macrophages?
do natural killer cells manufacture antibodies for future use?
do natural killer cells play a huge role in fighting against parasite disease?
Please let me know soon.
 
 
Answered by Dr. Nsah Bernard 5 hours later
Brief Answer:
See below for answers

Detailed Answer:
Sorry for late reply.

Some little first hand info: In immunology, an antigen is the substance that binds specifically to the respective antibody. It may originate from within the body ("self") or from the external environment ("non-self").
NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocytes. So NK cells are not monocytes or macrophages.

- Do Natural Killer cells receive the processed antigen from the monocytes or macrophages?
Answer: NK cells receive the processed antigen from the virus or tumor that is abnormally present in the body, then order upon release in close proximity to a cell slated for killing, perforin (protein from NK cells) forms pores in the cell membrane of the target cell, creating an aqueous channel through which the granzymes and associated molecules can enter, inducing either apoptosis (cell destruction) or osmotic cell lysis (cytoplasm destruction). An antimicrobial is also secreted by NK cells which directly kills bacteria by disrupting their cell walls analogous to neutrophils.

- Do the Natural Killer cells manufacture antibodies for future use?
Answer: Infected cells are routinely poisoned with antibodies for detection by immune cells. Antibodies that bind to antigens can be recognised by FcϒRIII (CD16) receptors expressed on NK cells resulting in NK activation, release of cytolytic granules and consequent cell apoptosis.

- Do NK cells provide resistance for infection? NK cells are activated in response to interferons or macrophage-derived cytokines. They serve to contain viral infections while the adaptive immune response is generating antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells that can clear the infection. NK cells work to control viral infections by secreting IFNγ and TNFα. IFNγ activates macrophages for phagocytosis and lysis, and TNFα acts to promote direct NK tumor cell killing. So saying plays role in adaptive immune response. The ability to generate memory cells following a primary infection and the consequent rapid immune activation and response to succeeding infections by the same antigen is fundamental to the role T and B cells play in the adaptive immune response. Despite prior belief that NK cells play no role in the adaptive immune responses, they have since been found to undergo expansion, contraction, memory maintenance and recall.
Actually, the mechanism in which these cells detect whether or not a cell is infected by a virus or other pathogen is presently subject to investigation.

- Do NK cells play a huge role in fighting against parasite infections?
Answer: Plays role with parasitic destruction yes, but major it is over statement. It mostly plays role in viral infections and tumors. Parasitic infections have other white blood cells to worry about.

Hope this helps you further and wish you the best.

Dr. Nsah
Above answer was peer-reviewed by
 
Follow-up: What is the function of natural killer cells? 4 hours later
so just to make it clear I would like to know yes or no if natural Killer cells provide resistance to infection???

Please let me know as soon as possible. Thanks!!!
 
 
Answered by Dr. Nsah Bernard 4 hours later
Brief Answer:
Yes they provide resistance

Detailed Answer:
Yes the provide future resistance to prior infections. Sorry I did try to explain in a more complex way. Hope this is clear enough.

Regards
Dr. Nsah
Above answer was peer-reviewed by
 
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