Gallstones are solid accumulations of the components of bile, which occur when the components of bile are not in correct proportion to each other. A gallstone blocking the outlet from the gallbladder
usually causes acute gall bladder infection
, so that bile cannot get out. The bile can become concentrated and infected, causing the condition. Chronic gall bladder infection occurs when the gallbladder walls have become permanently damaged by repeated attacks of acute gall bladder infection. Rare causes of gall bladder include severe burns or injury
, massive systemic infection, severe illness, diabetes
, obstruction by a tumor
of the duct leaving the gallbladder, and certain uncommon infections of the gallbladder including bacteria and worms.
To treatment includes removing the gallbladder, either immediately after diagnosis or after the patient has improved. Occasionally, patients with complications require surgery immediately after diagnosis. Patients who have infection with no gallstones have about a fifty percent chance of death if the gallbladder is not quickly removed. If the patient has other serious medical problems that may increase the risks of gallbladder removal surgery, the surgeon may decide to leave the gallbladder in place. In this case, an operation called a cholecystotomy may be performed to remove obstructing gallstones and drain infected bile.