Dog bite can cause rabies infection caused by rabies virus. The most common victims of dog are children.
First aid measures for dog bite wounds:
- The wound should be wiped and cleaned of any saliva of the dog. Wound should be washed with soap and running water.
- Wound should not be closed.
- The person should be taken to hospital immediately.
- Since there is chance of getting infected with tetanus, tetanus injection should be given.
- The bitten dog should be watched for 10-15 days for symptoms of rabies.
- If there is deep puncture wounds which is badly torn and bleeding, pressure is applied with clean, dry cloth to stop bleeding.
- If there is deep cut, the suturing should be postponed.
- Keep the injury elevated above the level of heart to slow swelling and prevent infection.
- Rabies vaccines: There are various types of vaccine available like Human diploid cell vaccine, Vero-cell purified vaccine, and purified chick embryo vaccine. The human diploid cell vaccine or purified Vero-cell vaccine are most recommended for post-exposure prophylaxis. It is given in 5 doses on days 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28. Sometimes extra dose on 90th day may be given.
- Other treatments: Passive immunization in the form of immune globulin is available countries. It is administered soon after the exposure to rabies infection and followed up with anti-rabies vaccine. The vaccine can be administered around the wound and inject the remaining vaccine in the gluteal region (buttocks).
How to prevent dog bite:
- Do not allow the child alone with the pet.
- Do not try to separate fighting dogs.
- Leave the animals when they are eating.
- Avoid sick animals and animal that you do not know.
- Select the family pet carefully and keep the pet vaccinated up-to-date.
- Do not chase after the dogs.
- Avoid playing with aggressive dogs.
- Remain motionless when approached by an unfamiliar dog, do not run or scream.
- Do not disturb the dog when it is sleeping, eating and caring for puppies.