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What is the pathophysiology, symptoms and treatment for congestive heart failure?

DOCTOR OF THE MONTH - May 2014
May 2014
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Radiologist
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Could you give me the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure in layman's terms and explain why edema happens. The patient is 81 years old and has a diagnosis of CHF Also, could you give me the pathopysiology, signs and sypmtoms, complications and treatment of all the past medical history of the patient. It should be in laymans's terms and just a short answer. The patient is 81 years old, male.
Posted Fri, 31 Jan 2014 in Heart Failure
 
 
Answered by Dr. Vivek Chail 3 hours later
Brief Answer: Please find detailed answer below Detailed Answer: Hi XXXX, Thanks for writing in to us. 1. Edema in congestive heart failure: In congestive heart failure the heart can no longer keep up with the normal demands placed on it to pump blood to the rest of your body. The main pumping chambers of the heart (the ventricles) may become stiff and not fill properly between beats. Also, the heart muscle may weaken, and the ventricles stretch (dilate) to the point that the heart can't pump blood efficiently throughout your body. The term "congestive heart failure" comes from blood backing up into or congesting the liver, abdomen, lower extremities and lungs. This congestion causes pooling of fluid in different areas of the body leading to edema. So fluid tends to collect in these areas. 2. Atrial fibrillation: Atrial fibrillation is an irregular and often rapid heart rate that commonly causes poor blood flow to the body. During atrial fibrillation, the heart's two upper chambers (the atria) beat chaotically and irregularly out of coordination with the two lower chambers (the ventricles) of the heart. Atrial fibrillation symptoms include heart palpitations, shortness of breath and weakness. Complications: Rhythmic disorder of the heart which can lead to stroke and heart failure. Treatment: Regular medications, pace maker implantation and defibrillation in an emergency. 3. COPD: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) refers to a group of lung diseases that block airflow and make breathing difficult. There is an obstruction to the flow of air within the lungs. Symptoms: Shortness of breath, especially during physical activities Wheezing Chest tightness Having to clear your throat first thing in the morning, due to excess mucus in your lungs A chronic cough that produces sputum that may be clear, white, yellow or greenish Blueness of the lips or fingernail beds (cyanosis) Frequent respiratory infections Complications: Respiratory infections. High blood pressure. Heart problems Rarely lung cancer in association with smoking Treatment includes medications like bronchodilators, steroids, theophylline and anitbiotics if infection is present. Lung exercises also are recommended. 4. Colon cancer: Colon cancer is cancer of the large intestine (colon), the lower part of your digestive system. Symptoms: A change in your bowel habits, including diarrhea or constipation or a change in the consistency of your stool Rectal bleeding or blood in your stool Persistent abdominal discomfort, such as cramps, gas or pain A feeling that your bowel doesn't empty completely Weakness or fatigue Unexplained weight loss Complications: Terminal disease if in late stages. Treatment: Treated by surgery and chemotherapy with radiation. 5. Benign Prostate Hypertrophy: Prostate gland enlargement is a common condition as men get older. BPH is a non cancerous enlargement in older men. Symptoms: Weak urine stream Difficulty starting urination Stopping and starting while urinating Dribbling at the end of urination Frequent or urgent need to urinate Increased frequency of urination at night (nocturia) Straining while urinating Not being able to completely empty the bladder Urinary tract infection Formation of stones in the bladder Reduced kidney function Complications: Acute urinary retention. Urinary tract infections (UTIs). Bladder stones. Bladder damage. Kidney damage. Treatment: Medications in mild enlargement which includes Alpha blockers and 5 alpha reductase inhibitors. Surgery for moderate enlargement. Hope your query is answered. Do write back if you have any doubts. Regards, Dr.Vivek
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Follow-up: What is the pathophysiology, symptoms and treatment for congestive heart failure? 22 minutes later
Thank you for that. How about the pathophysiology of... cellulitis and back pain.
 
 
Answered by Dr. Vivek Chail 14 minutes later
Brief Answer: Please find detailed answer below Detailed Answer: Hi XXXX, Thanks for writing back with an update. 6. Cellulitis: Cellulitis is a common, potentially serious bacterial skin infection. Cellulitis appears as a swollen, red area of skin that feels hot and tender, and it may spread rapidly. Cellulitis may affect only your skin's surface, or cellulitis may also affect tissues underlying your skin and can spread to your lymph nodes and bloodstream. Symptoms: Redness Swelling Tenderness Pain Warmth Fever Complications: Left untreated, the spreading infection may rapidly turn life-threatening. Treatment: High dose of antibiotics. 7. Back pain: Back pain is a common complaint and usually invloves pain in the lower back region. It is usually due to pinched nerves but can also be due to other reasons like injury and infections. Symptoms: Muscle ache Shooting or stabbing pain Pain that radiates down your leg Limited flexibility or range of motion of the back Inability to stand up straight Complications: Can cause a debilitating condition and if due to infection, it may lead to serious health problems. Treatment: Involves treating the cause of back pain. Rest is important in cases of nerve related pain. Infections are to be treated with medications. Hope your query is answered. Do write back if you have any doubts. Regards, Dr.Vivek
Above answer was peer-reviewed by
 
Follow-up: What is the pathophysiology, symptoms and treatment for congestive heart failure? 7 hours later
I have here the results of the diagnostic test. Would you be able to interpret the abnormal finding of the latest result? Thanks so much. Need to submit it. Please I would be glad if you could answer it asap
 
 
Answered by Dr. Vivek Chail 35 minutes later
Brief Answer: Please find detailed answer below Detailed Answer: Hi XXXX, Thanks for writing in with an update. As requested by you, please find the results as follows: Page 01: Urinary proteins are high at 3+ There are casts and RBCs in high power fields Page 02: High density lipoproteins (HDL) are slightly lower that normal. HDL is the good cholesterol. Page 03: The brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels are higher than normal in both samples. This indicates probablility of heart failure. The serum albumin is also slightly lower than normal. Page 04: Glomerular filtration rate (renal function) is slightly lower than normal. Page 05: Blood urea levels are persistently slightly above normal. Serum creatinine is at borderline upper limits. Glomerular filtration rate as measured on different days is slightly below normal. Page 06: Hemoglobin levels, hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume of red blood cells is below normal. Platelet count was below normal earlier and has now got back to normal. Page 07: Atrial fibrillation is noted. In summary the heart and kidney functions need attention. Hope your query is answered. Do write back if you have any doubts. Regards, Dr.Vivek
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