Staphylococcus aureus

What is Staphylococcus aureus?

It is a gram positive bacteria which causes infection of skin most commonly and it will cause pus fuilled lumps in the body.Most common in diabetics and immunocompromised.

Questions and answers on "Staphylococcus aureus"

Hello !!

I would like to ask you question! ( if I need ask this question to other doctor please say me to what specialty doctor should I ask this question )


If I don’t have any other disease I m healthy and I get MRSA infection by bacteria – and I go to doctor early as possible and treat infection it will save me ?
And I will avoid any fatal problem !!

I wrote to much things – but the most important I would like to understand If I get (CA-) MRSA and get for doctor in soon as possible and infection doesn’t spread in body I will avoid any health problems even (CA-) MRSA strain is dangerous.


Because there are two kinds of MRSA





1.     CA-MRSA - community-associated (CA-) MRSA

They say that 75 are treated effective – does other 25 % are very dangerous ? Or you can not say that ? you can still treat these 25 % and important to star early treatment! Is it so ??


Please read this part !!

About 75 percent of community-associated (CA-) MRSA infections are localized to skin and soft tissue and usually can be treated effectively.[5] Some CA-MRSA strains display enhancedvirulence, spreading more rapidly and causing illness much more severe than traditional healthcare-associated (HA-) MRSA infections, and they can affect vital organs and lead to widespread infection (sepsis), toxic shock syndrome, and necrotizing ("flesh-eating") pneumonia. This is thought to be due to toxins carried by CA-MRSA strains, such as PVL and PSM, though PVL was recently found not to be a factor in a study by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases(NIAID) at the National Institutes of Health. (NIH) It is not known why some healthy people develop CA-MRSA skin infections that are treatable while others infected with the same strain develop severe infections or die.[6]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methicillin-resistant_Staphylococcus_aureus







2.They explain how you can get CA-MRSA and what are first symptoms, and how you get it !!



CA-MRSA tends to occur under conditions where people are in prolonged physical proximity, such as in childcare and long-term care facilities, and in soldiers, prisoners, athletes involved in skin-to-skin contact sports such as wrestling, and in individuals sharing personal items such as towels. Unlike HA-MRSA, the source of infection for CA-MRSA is often difficult to identify.
CA-MRSA usually enters the body though a cut or scrape. The first sign of infection is commonly described as resembling a spider bite – a spot on the skin that is red, swollen, and painful. The site may produce pus. Infrequently, CA-MRSA infection can progress to a more serious disease, such as bloodstream infection or pneumonia. CA-MRSA can, in rare cases, lead to death. Highly publicized accounts of the deaths of at least three students from CA-MRSA in late 2007 prompted concern among students, parents, and school officials. The best defense against MRSA is to maintain good hygiene, including frequent and thorough hand washing, and to avoid the sharing of personal care items.
https://www.bcm.edu/departments/molecular-virology-and-microbiology/index.cfm?pmid=16508


3. And this publication strongly say that CA-MRSA should be diagnose and treat as soon as possible - so infection doesn’t spread to body !


If CA-MRSA is detected early, it can usually be treated effectively with antibiotics other than methicillin. It is important that individuals who think they might have a CA-MRSAinfection seek advice from a healthcare professional quickly so that the infection can be properly diagnosed and treated effectively. With skin infections caused by CA-MRSA, antibiotics are rarely needed. Once the wound is open and drained of pus, it will normally heal on its own. Early diagnosis also ensures that appropriate measures can be taken to limit the spread of the infection.
http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/id-mi/camrsa-eng.php


4. And they say – infection could be deadly if it spread to body!!
So the most important thing is not to allow infection to spread – treat as soon as possible – even Some CA-MRSA strains display enhanced virulence, spreading more rapidly and causing illness much more severe than traditional healthcare-associated (HA-) MRSA infections, and they can affect vital organs and lead to widespread infection (sepsis), toxic shock syndrome, and necrotizing ("flesh-eating") pneumonia



5.So if I catch infection in time it will no spread to body and cause health problems. It is so ??


On rare occasions, a CA-MRSA infection can result in life-threatening illness or death. However, most cases are limited to the skin and can be successfully treated.

http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/id-mi/camrsa-eng.php



And week immune system will have more chance to get infection


Having a weakened immune system. People with weakened immune systems, including those living with HIV/AIDS, are more likely to have severe CA-MRSA infections
http://www.utexas.edu/safety/ehs/bulletin/staph.html




6.As I understand 1 – 2 % carries MSRA, and I get it on skin in my small wound I can get MRSA infection, And if I get very treatment will it help me to avoid rare fatality ? As CA-MRSA is more virulent (as I understand more dangers) – early diagnose can help to treat it ?? is it so ??
And are CA-MRSA more dangerous than HA-MRSA in some case ? How to avoid this danger ?

Community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) is more easily treated and more virulent than hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methicillin-resistant_Staphylococcus_aureus



7.As they say that MRSA death rate could be high !! As I understand it is MRSA from hospitals – because they say that MRSA is influenced by other diseases !! Is it so ??
(Except for the presence of comorbidities……..)


Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is an important infection with an incidence rate ranging from 20 to 50 cases/100,000 population per year. Between 10% and 30% of these patients will die from SAB. Comparatively, this accounts for a greater number of deaths than for AIDS, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis combined. Multiple factors influence outcomes for SAB patients. The most consistent predictor of mortality is age, with older patients being twice as likely to die. Except for the presence of comorbidities, the impacts of other host factors, including gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and immune status, are unclear. Pathogen-host interactions, especially the presence of shock and the source of SAB, are strong predictors of outcomes. Although antibiotic resistance may be associated with increased mortality, questions remain as to whether this reflects pathogen-specific factors or poorer responses to antibiotic therapy, namely, vancomycin. Optimal management relies on starting appropriate antibiotics in a timely fashion, resulting in improved outcomes for certain patient subgroups. The roles of surgery and infectious disease consultations require further study. Although the rate of mortality from SAB is declining, it remains high. Future international collaborative studies are required to tease out the relative contributions of various factors to mortality, which would enable the optimization of SAB management and patient outcomes.
http://cmr.asm.org/content/25/2/362.full




8.They say that the diagnose is done 48 h after you have got infection – so it means – it could be start treatment to avoid any fatal problems !!
I thin it is so !!! So it is important to start treatment as soon as possible !!


Setting of BacteremiaThe setting of SAB onset has traditionally been divided into two categories, health care associated (formerly nosocomial) and community acquired, when subsequent positive S. aureus blood culture bottles are obtained ≥48 h and within 48 h of hospital admission, respectively (102). With changes in the complexity of modern health care, community-onset infections are now further divided into episodes with health care contact (e.g., health care-associated outpatient) and those without (253). The setting of SAB assisted clinicians in predicting the infecting S. aureus clonal type and, consequently, antibiotic choice. However, with the advent of community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) (defined by the antibiotic resistance pattern and/or staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec [SCCmec] type) strains entering the hospital, causing cross infections and replacing common hospital clones, these definitions are becoming less helpful (229).
http://cmr.asm.org/content/25/2/362.full



9.And they say that CA-MRSA has more drugs for treatment – so it would help to treat is easily if do it in time !!!


CA-MRSA has a greater spectrum of antimicrobial susceptibility, including to sulfa drugs (like co-trimoxazole/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole), tetracyclines (like doxycycline and minocycline) andclindamycin (for osteomyelitis), but the drug of choice for treating CA-MRSA is now believed to be vancomycin, according to a XXXXXXX Ford Hospital Study. HA-MRSA is resistant even to these antibiotics and often is susceptible only to vancomycin. Newer drugs, such as linezolid (belonging to the newer oxazolidinones class) anddaptomycin, are effective against both CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA. The Infectious Disease Society of XXXXXXX recommends vancomycin, linezolid, or clindamycin (if susceptible) for treating patients with MRSA pneumonia.[96] Ceftaroline, a fifth generation cephalosporin, is the first beta-lactam antibiotic approved in the US to treat MRSA infections (skin and soft tissue or community acquired pneumonia only).[97]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methicillin-resistant_Staphylococcus_aureus















10. They say that CA-MRSA are rare fatal


The place of SAB onset influences outcomes, with community-onset episodes having a lower mortality rate than health care-acquired episodes (0.6% and 3.9%, respectively) (71), probably secondary to the predominance of skin and soft tissue infections and bone and joint infections in community-onset episodes.
http://cmr.asm.org/content/25/2/362.full



11.But they say some cases CA-MRSA could be fatal !!


Infective endocarditis, although rare in children, is associated with an increased 1-year mortality rate (40%, versus 12% for children with no IE) (297). Both IE (patients 0 to 10 years old) and pulmonary infections (patients <1 and 11 to 20 years old) were independent predictors of mortality (71). Although small case series have documented high mortality rates associated with pvl-positive and CA-MRSA infections (27, 83, 84), a lack of comparative data and the small sample size limit drawing conclusions about the impact of these factors on outcomes.
http://cmr.asm.org/content/25/2/362.full








12.And in other publication explain more details – and they say that diagnose in these case are very important, so children should examine their body to find out their source of infection to avoid infection to develop (Mortality appears to be high, and children may benefit from a search of their soft tissues and joints to identify the source of infection to prevent embolic dissemination.) So it is important to find out MRSA infection soon as possible and to start treatment – to avoid fatal end !!




We observed a number of cases of sepsis from bacteremia in children from community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which led us to study its patterns of infection and outcome. A retrospective review identifying children admitted to our institution with blood culture-proven community-associated MRSA sepsis over a 2-year period was performed. The inclusion criteria were younger than 19 years old, two or more blood cultures for MRSA within 48 hours of admission, evidence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and no prior hospital admissions within 6 months. Eight patients were included; seven required mechanical ventilation. Vasopressors were required in seven patients. Four patients required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Four patients had culture-proven septic arthritis or thrombophlebitis and three of these patients developed bilateral necrotizing pneumonia. Bilateral necrotizing pneumonia was identified in the other four patients, but the primary source of infection was never identified. The overall intact neurologic survival was 50 per cent. Children with severe community-associated MRSA sepsis can rapidly progress to cardiorespiratory failure. Mortality appears to be high, and children may benefit from a search of their soft tissues and joints to identify the source of infection to prevent embolic dissemination.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/0000?dopt=Abstract









- And other risk factor. Is here

A report of CA-MRSA bacteremia in neonates from XXXXXXX (94) noted a high mortality rate of 38%. However, comparative data with other SAB clonal episodes were not documented. In a neonatal intensive care unit study by Kuint et al. (149), of 11 CA-MRSA (pvl-negative), 20 multidrug-resistant MRSA, and 12 MSSA bacteremic episodes, mortality (9%) was not dependent on the S. aureus subtype despite CA-MRSA episodes occurring in younger neonates.

doctor1 MD

Brief Answer:
As below:

Detailed Answer:
Hi,

Thank you for your query. I find that you are too worried than you should be about MRSA. Let me tell you MRSA is virulent but not as dangerous as you think. With your readings and research I could understand that you are sleeping and living with its...

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23 female. i had miscarriage on april 2010 in which i contacted staph aureus & i went for scan and HVS . scan says PID and HVS says heavy growth of staph aureus. Dr gave me medications based on sensitivity and after the treatment ,i went for test and there was no bacteria growth.i had sex with my spouse again and the infection came back without conception. i am worried, i want to conceive again

doctor1 MD

Welcome to HCM.
There are certain treatment but your partner also has to take it completely to prevent recurrent infection.Also go for infertility profile to rule out other cause of infertility.
Take extra care for local hygiene.
Consult your gynecologist for better guidance.

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my husband was diagnosed of having staph aureus and 0% active motility ,10% sluggish, 90% dormant. count 0.6x106 cells/ml, progressive motility 0%, pus cells 3-5hpf, tail abnormal, head size 10% normal, morphology 90%, color greyish yellow, volume 5mls.Please I ask if there is a solution to this problem and if there is, what are the medications you can prescribe? please advice

doctor1 MD

where your husband is having this staph infection.what symptoms does he have.augementin is best for staph infection but if resistant vancomycin and other such medicines are used which are availabe in only injectable form.route of administration of medicine depends on severity of infection and...

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Ifeel hot on my inside muscle especially on my left sholder down to my forearm and an ocassional antlike movement inside my body.I have being diagnosed of staph aureus and recomended clindamycin and floxapen as the drugs sensitve to the bacteria in my system.i had just concluded taking 250mg{3 capsules a day} of floxapen for 7 days and i still does not feel better what do i do.

doctor1 MD

Hi

Infection presents as swelling, redness, pain. It could be hot. You may see soreness. Usually the skin infection i s called cellulites which is very obvious.
If it is infection it will get better in seven days. It does not look like infection for me.

You can get X Ray of neck and see if there...

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Small dots with pus some times with pain also without pain develop around nose and on the nose. Fully cured by using erythromycin lotion/cream. Now the no cream/lotion/ointment is available which contains erythromycin 3-4%. Can you please suggest some other alternative

doctor1 MD

Brief Answer:
Aloe vera gel is effective.

Detailed Answer:
Hi

Thank you for asking HCM.

I have gone through your query. Aloe vera gel is a good alternative in place of using erythromycin cream for staphylococcus aureus skin infection.

Aloe vera gels are available over the counter also. Studies...

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With past MRSA sinus infections I used a sinus irrigation of 160mg gentamicin in a L of NSS. Successfully several times over 20 years. I've recently moved an my new ENT Dr has prescribed irritations but the dose is a 8o mg capsule in 10 ml of NSS, BID My Internet search shows 160mg in a L as a frequently used concentration.
I am concerned about this very large increase in concentration. Please give me your comments about this dose.
Thanks

doctor1 MD

Brief Answer:
There should be no major problem.

Detailed Answer:
Hi,

Thank you for your query.

1. A concentrated solution of gentamicin should cause no harm.

2. However, every concentration of this solution will involve absorption into the body with possible side effects as with intravenous...

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Is clindamycin hcl 300mg used for a spider bite

doctor1 MD

Brief Answer:
Yes, as an antibiotic

Detailed Answer:
Hi,

Thanks for your query.

Sorry for the delay in my response.

Yes, Clindamycin hcl is an antibiotic and is used in spider bites to prevent any bacterial infection in the bite wound. It has no role against the venom. Other preferred antibiotic...

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Good day doctor, I had a test done (HVS) it showed pus cells ++ and epithelial cells 0-6phf .

doctor1 MD

Brief Answer:
You aren't infected

Detailed Answer:
Hi dear and thanks for your query.

Cell culture for HVS is negative,this show that you are not infected by HSV.
Cell culture test may give a false-negative result if the sores have begun healing or if you are recently infected.
Hence if I was...

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Hi Doctor,

for the last 50 days m getting regular boils(28 Years old, before tht never in my life i had boils), in the beginning i dont take ny medicine nd it cured by itself b ut next time i took Almox-500 it cured 70 % and i stopped using and now again i have got boils on my stomach and have started using Almox for same.
Please prescribe some medicine for speedy recovery.

Thanks in Advance.

doctor1 MD

Brief Answer:
Recurrent furunculosis

Detailed Answer:
Hi. Thanks for posting your concern at Healthcaremagic

Recurrent furunculosis/boils is due to staphylococcus aureus colonization of the nasal flora and skin flora.

The best way to approach is to start on an empirical oral antibiotic for a week...

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Please give me the name of the medication.to treat Staphylococcus Aureus infection.This is what I have now. Thanks, Ilona Petervari

doctor1 MD

Brief Answer:
Linezolid is a good Choice.

Detailed Answer:
HI

Thanks for choosing HCM.

Staphylococcus Aureus is a bacteria and responds to many antibiotics usually. Common among them are Cefpodoxime , Levofloxacin and Linezolid. Among these I use Linezolid for my patients.

But the right way to...

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Recent questions on  Staphylococcus aureus

doctor1 MD

im 18 years old, 5'7", 156 pounds, i had unprotected sex with a woman and got staph aureus. i went to a private clinic that isnt very expensive because i dont have a medical insurance. i have no clinical record, allergies or anything, im an athlete for my college. in the clinic i got laboratories for STDS for about $500, and the results showed staph aureus. ive been taking ciprofloxacinfor more than 3 weeks, and the doctor from the clinic isnt an specialist so he doesnt really know whats going on and what to really do. the infection should be out of my body already, but today in the morning i noticed that the head of my penis is wrinkled as when u're in the pool for too long and you finger tips get wrinkled, also, it has a kind of discoloration, and well the color of it isnt the same as before, its red as if it was irritated. what does all this mean, in what stage of the infection am i in or what is going on?

doctor1 MD

thanks
i did a urine culture with the following results: epithelia cells +/HPF AND PUS CELLS 1-2/HPF, CASTS ++, CRYSTALS +++, YEAST nIL, CULTURE ISOLATE Heavy staphylococcus aureus. sentive to clindamycin +++ and cefuroxime ++ all other antibiotics R resistance. pls adivise on my kidney effect

doctor1 MD

I have an ointment for presugrery for nasal application. It is called Mupiricin USP 2%. I am supposed to have a prescription for the nasal introduction, but the tube says for dermatologic use only. It is Sat night so I cannot call dr.s office, or...

doctor1 MD

Dear, I did semen culture test.i have Staphylococcus aureus Bactria in my semen.can you tell me good antibiotic to i start course. thanks

doctor1 MD

I have done a semen culture and it shows staphylococcus aureus . What is the recommended treatment given my sensitivity to antibiotics.

doctor1 MD

Hello,i am 35 years,have had a course of antibiotics named tetracycline for more than 4months against uninary tract infection caused by staphylococcus aureus.While on this course of treatment,i was taken sugary foods and juice and a high carbohydrate foods.Suddenly,one morning i woke up to notice pain on my foot,toes,hands,fingers infact up to my head and all over my body.What could this be and how can i deal with this problem ?

doctor1 MD

Dear Sir;
I was suffering from chronic UTI; During urine culture and gram stain test;
Foll. Bacteria’s found 1) klebsiella pneumonia ; and 2) staphylococcus aureus;
For which doctor gave foll. Antibiotics for 10 days;
1)     L-CIN 750 ; once a day
2)     augmentin 625; twice a day
3)      Doxy-1 ; once a day;
Total for 10 days;
But after stopping of course after 2 weeks;
Sign of UTI (i.e. Pus coming from urethra ) again reoccurring;
Doctor asked to take Zospar(200mg) and Doxy-1 for 15 days?;
Also I have undergone for kidney stone treatment previously;
Is this period and treatment is enough to remove UTI completely?;
Please guide me

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