Platelet count

What is Platelet count?

Platelets, also called "thrombocytes", are blood cells whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to stop bleeding by clumping and clogging blood vessel injuries. Platelets have no cell nucleus: they are fragments of cytoplasm which are derived from the megakaryocytes of the bone marrow, and then enter the circulation. These unactivated platelets are biconvex discoid (lens-shaped) structures, 2–3 µm in greatest diameter. Platelets are found only in mammals, whereas in other animals (e.g. birds, amphibians) thrombocytes circulate as intact mononuclear cells.

On a stained blood smear, platelets appear as dark purple spots, about 20% the diameter of red blood cells. The smear is used to examine platelets for size, shape, qualitative number, and clumping. The ratio of platelets to red blood cells in a healthy adult is 1:10 to 1:20.

The main function of platelets is to contribute to hemostasis: the process of stopping bleeding at the site of interrupted endothelium. They gather at the site and unless the interruption is physically too large, they plug the hole. First, platelets attach to substances outside the interrupted endothelium: adhesion. Second, they change shape, turn on receptors and secrete chemical messengers: activation. Third, they connect to each other through receptor bridges: aggregation. Formation of this platelet plug (primary hemostasis) is associated with activation of the coagulation cascade with resultant fibrin deposition and linking (secondary hemostasis). These processes may overlap: the spectrum is from a predominantly platelet plug, or "white clot" to a predominantly fibrin clot, or "red clot" or the more typical mixture. The final result is the clot. Some would add the subsequent clot retraction and platelet inhibition as fourth and fifth steps to the completion of the process and still others a sixth step wound repair.

Low platelet concentration is thrombocytopenia and is due to either decreased production or increased destruction. Elevated platelet concentration is thrombocytosis and is either congenital, reactive (to cytokines), or due to unregulated production: one of the myeloprolerative neoplasms or certain other myeloid neoplasms. A disorder of platelet function is a thrombocytopathy.

Normal platelets can respond to an abnormality on the vessel wall rather than to hemorrhage, resulting in inappropriate platelet adhesion/activation and thrombosis: the formation of a clot within an intact vessel. These arise by different mechanisms than a normal clot. Examples are: extending the fibrin clot of venous thrombosis; extending an unstable or ruptured arterial plaque, causing arterial thrombosis; and microcirculatory thrombosis. An arterial thrombus may partially obstruct blood flow, causing downstream ischemia; or completely obstruct it, causing downstream tissue death.

Questions and answers on "Platelet count"

I just had blood work done and had a platelet count of 143. I just came off of a steroid cycle consisting of 500mg testosterone prop a week for 8...

doctor1 MD

Brief Answer:
Steroids can reduce platelet count.

Detailed Answer:
Hello,
Thanks for posting your query on HealthcareMagic.
Steroids are known to...

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What does it mean when your "platelet number" is high? Just had blood work and my platelets are 458

doctor1 MD

Brief Answer:
Hello dear.Its just outside the range and for most of us it is normal.

Detailed Answer:
Hello dear. The normal platelet count ranges...

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Does a mean platelet count of 13.1 indicate a problem and what should be done

doctor1 MD

Brief Answer:
Do you mean MEAN PLATELET VOLUME??

Detailed Answer:
Hi Mrs Vriggs,
Welcome to HCM. Hope you are in good health.
The normal platelet count...

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