Cytopathology

What is Cytopathology?

The study of disease changes within individual cells or cell types.

Questions and answers on "Cytopathology"

Hi I attended my doctor today for a smear test, after examination she told me that my womb was quite bulky and she was sending me for a scan. I am going through the menopause for the last 4 years and my period stopped 3 years ago. She mentioned the possibility of my ovaries being swollen and possible cancer. I am 50 this year.

doctor1 MD

Hello and welcome to HCM,

Menopause is associated with cessation of menstrual cycles, thinning of the endometrium (uterine lining) and atophy (shrinkage) of ovaries.
An increase in thickness of the endometrium and enlargement of ovaries in the peri-menopausal and menopausal phase has to be looked...

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i was diagnosed with calcified granuoloma last 2008 , had treatment for 3 months of tb drugs for 3 months, my x ray after treatment was negative , but now when i had my new x ray found again the nodule. i had no signs nor symptoms of TB
I've done smear test afraid that i might turn out positive. What is the chances that i have a tb?

doctor1 MD

Calcification is accumulation of calcium around the healed lesion. It is most probably a non malignant lesion inflammatory in nature. It is generally seen after healing of infections like TB, Berylliosis, Sarcoid, Crohn's, Syphilis, Wegeners. So in your case it is after healed TB lesion.

You...

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I had a smear test in December. Which had moderate cells showed up. I had a coloscopy scan in feb which they lasered them off. They said it will take 6 weeks to heal and rest etc. which I did. Now every time I go to the toilet for a number 2 and strin a bit I have fresh blood come from my vagina. I'm a bit worried. As the other week when I had intercourse there was blood everywhere.

doctor1 MD

Dear User
Kindly send the detailed investigation report
till then
Please take
T. Bolbadha Ras (2-2-2) x 1 month
Syr. Usheerasav (10ml-10ml-10ml) x 1 month

Dr Manish R. Rijhwani
BAMS; LLM
drmanish78@gmail.com

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Hi, I am 6 weeks pregnant with some bleeding since Friday, very little pain and no clots. I have had a miscarraige 4 years ago and also an abortion 8 years ago. I currently have no children but in a smear test showed up low grade cells, could this or any other history I mentioned be the cause of a second miscarraige (If that was is going to happen because of the bleeding?). Thanks

doctor1 MD

Hello
Thanks for your query.
Low grade cells would not cause a miscarriage, unless there is a lesion on the cervix leading to cervical incompetence.
Also, investigate yourself for causes of miscarriage.
Commonest are genetic ( chromosomal ) causes.
Others are intra uterine infections, autoimmune...

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Hi! I had a PAP Smear test the other week but was not able to talk to the doctor coz she was not around when I visited her clinic. Her secretary showed me the result which showed the presence of coccobacillus. I have yet to go back for the interpretation..I feel something is wrong inside me because yesterday i felt pain somewhere inside, i don't know if it is in my abdomen or somewhere in my reproductive organs..but when i breath hard, the paid is felt most...could it be related to the presence of the bacteria? is this fatal?





doctor1 MD

Hi, Thanks for using HCM.

Presence of cocco bacilli in PAP smear shows infection genital tract, it could be any of these bacterias Haemophilus influenzae, Gardnerella vaginalis, and Chlamydia trachomatis.which can be treatable condition, not to worry.
You need antibiotic treatment for your...

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Hi I got a routine smear test on Monday and they did some swabs as I had quite a lot of discharge they left me a voicemail on wed and said i had an infection and to pick up a prescription i had to take 5 metronadazole all at once yesterday which was fine but I don't know what the infection was because they never told me was wondering if u could give me some answers many thanks Julie x

doctor1 MD

Hello,
There are two conditions where METRONIDAZOLE is the drug of choice.
1st is bacterial vaginosis
2nd Trichomoniasis
Since Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease where your sexual partner is also treated with metronidazole,it doesn't appear to be the diagnosis because otherwise your...

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Hello, i had just my menstruation last april 4, i had sex with my husband april 13, and on april 16 i had vaginal bleefing until now. I had cervicitis before, and last january my ob orescribed an albotyl sup,. I had also done a pap smear test and the result is satisfactory, except for inflammation. Im now 45 yeras old, by this time im now in three days using albotul albotyl sup, im planning to visit my ob . Tnx a lot, i hope you can give me an idea. God bless!

doctor1 MD

I am unable to be absolutely sure from your question, but the most likely cause is a cervical 'erosion', which is not something to be alarmed about.

To the naked eye, this looks like a graze on the neck of the womb, which is prone to bleed on contact during sex.

Erosions can be very easily treated...

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hi i had my period on 10th of march it was five days so i booked my smear test on 18th of march yeasterday i felt back pain then i had some pink blood when i whipe i thought it is my period but till today which is the second day still no blood only when i whipe still pink blood so i am wondering if i am having my period 10 days early or what is this !! could i be pregnant or is it because of the smear test. thank you

doctor1 MD

Welcome to Healthcare Magic
It could indicate an infection or menstrual disturbance due to hormonal problem. Are you on any medication. What are the results of the smear. Better to get examined properly by Gynaecologist for proper diagnosis and management. Any burning sensation on passing urine....

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hi im 26, 11st, 5ft.10inch and had my 1st smear test 2weeks ago, it came back that i had severe dyskaryosis, im sligtly worried about this as i have really tender pains in the lower part of my stomach and also sometime during or after sex, ive always had daily discharge to the point i thought i must have a std but came back negative, i sometimes feel dizzy, chould be honest and shed some light on what this could be please?

doctor1 MD

Hi,
Thanks for query,
As you are 26,you should not worry,
This change in cervical area will resolve gradually.
But it can be treated too.
Mind well it is not cancer.
It is not STD.
Consult your gynaec and discuss.
Ok and bye.

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hello doctor,during a pap smear test my doctor noticed a tiny polyp.what am I supposed to do now?

doctor1 MD

Hello There.
welcome to healthcare magic forum..
If you are not experiencing any discomfort or any bleeding there is nothing to worry about. Eventually you could get a polypectomy done after discussing with gynecologist.
Hope this helps.
Take care..

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Recent questions on  Cytopathology

doctor1 MD

I need help please This is some reports about my wife She can t make more testing like open lung biopsy it s impossible. I d like to know if my wife has lymphoma, and if so, which type We need to take appropriate actions. Please reply to me. My wife can t walk 5 steps at the same room and she live with 7 liters oxygen 24 hour a day if she move about 5 steps the oxygen level will be less than 50 . X- RAY REPORT 9-11-2009 Chest Radiograph ( PA View ) Revealed :- Both lung fields show multiple reticulonodular infiltration Giving honey comb appearance with tendency to cystic changes for correlation with clinical data end previous films. Pathology Report Material: C.T. guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of a lung nodule & liver focal lesions. Date of aspiration: 24/11/2009 CLINICAL PICTURE: C.T. guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of a lung nodule & liver focal lesion smeared over eight slides. MICROSCOPY: Cellular lung smears formed of many groups of epitheloid cells having large nuclei and abundant esinphilic cytoplasm. Many groups of hyperplastic bronchial cells exhibiting mild-moderate atypia were detected. The background was infiltrated with chronic inflammatory ceels mainly lymphocytes with moderate number of uniuncleated histiocytes. Few multinucleated giant cells were observed. The liver aspirate showed many groups of liver cells having bland cntral nuclei over background having infiltrated with lymphocytes. DIAGNOSIS: LUNG NODULE & LIVER FOCAL LESION: C.T. guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) Lymphoroliferative disorder suggestive for granulomatous inflammation for immunophenotyping confirmation. PATHOLOGY REPORT Microscopic: Examination of the films received many red cells, many scattered small, intermediate and large lymphoid cells with very few polmonuclear leucocytes. Diagnosis: Lung nodule and liver focal lesions, FINDING ARE IN FAVOUR OF MALIGNANT LYMPHOMA. -CASE FOR TISSUE BIOPSY FOR IMMUNOPHENOTYPING. PATHOLOGY REPORT GROSS: - Referred 8 FNAC smear slides, labeled by patient s name. four of the slides are labeled for site as liver and the other 4 as lung. All slides are examined and re-enclosed. - Three of the slides are de-stained after routine examination, then immunostained for LCA. CK & NSE. MICROSCOPY: - Liver and lung FNAC smears show blood and scattered groups of small, medium and large round cells. The FNAC smears also rich in neutrophils. - The immunostained smears show negative staining for CK & NSE and positive staining for LCA. Conclusion: Cytology slides ; re-staining for immunophenotyping: FINDINGS ARE CONSISTENT WITH NON-HODGKIN S LYMPHOMA ; MIXED SMALL AND LARGE CELL. PATHOLOGY REPORT One of the referred FNAC smear slides is de-stained after routine Examination, then immunostained for CD 20 as requested MICROSCOPY The immunostained smear shows a majority of CD 20 â??megative cells and few â?? likely reactive- positively stained small lymphocytes. CONCLUSION: Cytology slides ; restining for CD 20 Most cells are CD 20 negative. Scattered positive (likely reactive) small lymphocytes. Complete Blood Count Ref. Range Haemoglobin 5.6 gm/dl 12.1-16.6 Haematocrit 20.0% 30-40 Red cells count 3.37 mil/cmm 4.2-5.4 Red cell indices MCV 59.3 fl 78-94 MCH 16.6 pg 26-32 MCHC 28.0 gm/dl 31-34 RDW 20.9% Total leucocytic count 11,900 /cmm 4,000-11000 Differential Count Basophils 0 % 0-1 Eosinophils 1 % 1-4 Staff 2 % 1-7 Segmented 68 % 40-75 Lymphocytes 23 % 20-45 Monocytes 6 % 1-8 Others Platelet Count 800,000 /cmm 150,000-450,000 All the best,

doctor1 MD

On the cytopathology report:
"FNAC from right breast lump,[lower quadrant] yield blood mixed aspirate which on microscopy is scantily cellular and shows occasional clusters of benign ductal epithelial cells with myoepithelial cells. However few loosely cohesive clusters of ductal epithelial cells are also seen showing mild pleomorphism and overlapping of the cells. The background cossists of hemorrhages and necrosis." are mention but what is that and what can I do further

doctor1 MD

Hello, this is a question I have found most confusing. What is the actual difference between dyskariyosis and dysplasia? I was told upon having my smear test that I have low grade dyskariyosis and also high risk HPV. After having the colposcopy done, they took 2 biopsies of which came back CIN1 with no further treatment needed. No mention of HPV in my pathology report? Is this normal? They chose to use the watchful waiting and referred me back in a years time. What are the chances of it progressing within the year? Is there more chance of it regressing even with high risk HPV? It s all so confusing. Thank you. Danielle

doctor1 MD

Hypoechoic complexnodule .7cm benign follicular nodule bethesda cat.II follicular cells w/uniform nuclei in background of thin colloid w/scattered macrophages

doctor1 MD

Hello. I'm 28 years old and I've never been pregnant an I'm in good shape. They have told me that I have Low grade Cervical hypertrophy. I also had some infection that was treated with antibiotics. They didn't recommend any specific treatment, they just recommended HPV vaccination and pap smear tests every 6 months. Is that enough or do I have to do anything else?

doctor1 MD

I am 28 years female with no medical health problems till now. I have observed a swelling in the front side of the neck and performed the following tests: T3 Triiodothyronine - 0.90 T4 Thyroxine - 9.60 TSH - 4.78 I have performed high resolution...

doctor1 MD

Hi, I am 28 years female with no medical health problems till now. I have observed a swelling in the front side of the neck and performed the following tests: T3 Triiodothyronine - 0.90 T4 Thyroxine - 9.60 TSH - 4.78 I have performed high...

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