What is Wigraine?
234–236 °C Alfa Aesar
237 °C Oxford University Chemical Safety Data
238 °C LKT Labs [C0221]
237 °C Jean-Claude Bradley Open Melting Point Dataset 14937
238 °C Jean-Claude Bradley Open Melting Point Dataset 17008, 17229, 22105, 27892, 27893, 27894, 27895
235.25 °C Jean-Claude Bradley Open Melting Point Dataset 27892, 27893, 27894, 27895
236 °C Jean-Claude Bradley Open Melting Point Dataset 27892, 27893, 27894, 27895
235 °C Jean-Claude Bradley Open Melting Point Dataset 6603
234–236 °C Alfa Aesar A10431, 39214
Experimental Boiling Point:
178 °C (Sublimes) Alfa Aesar
178 °C (Sublimes) Alfa Aesar 39214 }} | boiling_point = | boiling_notes = }} Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class of psychoactive drugs. It is the world's most widely consumed psychoactive drug, but unlike many other psychoactive substances, it is legal and unregulated in nearly all parts of the world. It is a bitter, white crystalline purine, a methylxanthine alkaloid, and thus closely related chemically to the adenine and guanine contained in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). It is found in the seeds, nuts, or leaves of a number of plants native to South America and East Asia. The most well known source of caffeine is the seed (commonly incorrectly referred to as the "bean") of Coffea plants. Beverages containing caffeine are ingested to relieve or prevent drowsiness and to increase one's energy level. Caffeine is extracted from the plant part containing it for making beverages by steeping it in water, a process called infusion. These beverages are very popular; in North America, 90% of adults consume caffeine daily.
Caffeine is classified by the Food and Drug Administration as "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS). Toxic doses, over 10 grams per day for an adult, are much higher than typical dose of under 500 milligrams per day. A cup of coffee contains 80–175 mg of caffeine, depending on what "bean" (seed) is used and how it is prepared (e.g. drip, percolation, or espresso). Thus it requires roughly 50–100 ordinary cups of coffee to reach a lethal dose. However pure powdered caffeine, which is available as a dietary supplement, can be lethal in tablespoon-sized amounts. There are several known mechanisms of action to explain the effects of caffeine. The most prominent is to reversibly block the action of adenosine on its receptor, which blocks the onset of drowsiness induced by adenosine. Caffeine also stimulates certain portions of the autonomic nervous system.
Caffeine can have both positive and negative health effects. It can be used to treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia of prematurity, and to prevent apnea of prematurity: caffeine citrate was placed on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines in 2007. Tolerance to the autonomic effects of increased blood pressure and heart rate, and increased urine output, develops with chronic use (i.e., these symptoms become less pronounced or do not occur following consistent use).
Caffeine confers a survival advantage on the plant containing it in three ways. First, if it is ingested by an insect feeding on and potentially damaging or killing the plant, caffeine functions as a natural pesticide which can paralyze and kill the insect. Second, droppings from the plant infuse the surrounding soil with caffeine, which can inhibit the growth of and kill competing seedlings (and potentially its own progeny and itself). Third, caffeine can enhance the reward memory of pollinators such as honey bees, thus increasing the numbers of its progeny.
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