Steroids

What is Steroids?

Steroids comprise a group of cyclic organic compounds whose most common characteristic is an arrangement of seventeen carbon atoms in a four-ring structure, where the rings are three composed of 6-carbons (rings A, B, and C) followed by one with 5-carbons (ring D). Further common features are an 8-carbon side chain attached to a carbon on ring D, and two or more methyl groups at the points where adjacent rings are "fused". Hundreds of distinct steroids are found in animals, fungi, plants, and elsewhere, and specific steroids underlie proper structure and function in many biological processes. Their core tetracyclic ring structure is synthesized in each organism by biochemical pathways that involve cyclization of a thirty-carbon chain, squalene, into an intermediate, either lanosterol or cycloartenol. From such intermediates, organisms then derive critical steroids such as cholesterol, the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone, and bile acids. Based on such structures, synthetic and medicinal chemists synthesize novel steroids for use as drugs, e.g. the anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone.

As noted, the three cyclohexane rings of steroids are designated as rings A, B and C, and the one cyclopentane ring is designated as ring D. Individual steroids vary, first and primarily, by the oxidation state of the carbon atoms of the rings and by the chains and functional groups attached to this four-ring system. Sterols are a particularly important form of steroids, with sterols having a cholestane-derived framework and an hydroxyl group at the C-3 ring position being the most prominent (e.g., as in cholesterol, shown at right). In addition, steroids can vary more markedly via changes to the ring structure (e.g., via ring scissions that produce secosteroids such as vitamin D3, see below).

Questions and answers on "Steroids"

I am 65 years old, female, I often get bronchial asthma I am on symbicort inhaler twice a day, and ventolin when needed. I also take 50 micrograms...

doctor1 MD

Hi,

Welcome to HealthcareMagic Forum
White patch on the vocal cord can be fungal infection because of repeated use of steroid inhaler. Secondly,...

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i went out into the sun and when i came back in i was so close to being blind, i had a field of green in my vision and i could only see shapes of...

doctor1 MD

Thank you for choosing health care magic. Your condition could be a sign of impending stroke. It could be due to temporary lack of blood flow to...

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hi .. doctor. My name is irvan, age 26th - I think throat ripple like a lot but it does not exist. if the meal does not hurt. - Stomach feels like...

doctor1 MD

thank you.clinical feature and positive findings of inv(high RBC count & PCV) indicates polycythemia.now it should be differentiated that it is...

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doctor1 MD

hi .. doctor. My name is irvan, age 26th - I think throat ripple like a lot but it does not exist. if the meal does not hurt. - Stomach feels like...

doctor1 MD

i went out into the sun and when i came back in i was so close to being blind, i had a field of green in my vision and i could only see shapes of...

doctor1 MD

I am 65 years old, female, I often get bronchial asthma I am on symbicort inhaler twice a day, and ventolin when needed. I also take 50 micrograms...

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