What is Cycloserine?
Cycloserine (4-amino-3-isoxazolidinone) is a drug sold under the brand name Seromycin. It is an antibiotic effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Since the discovery that cycloserine is able to penetrate into the central nervous system, numerous studies have been conducted to assess the efficacy of cycloserine for psychiatric disorders. It has been found to be effective in the treatment of some neurological disorders, due to its effect as a selective partial agonist of the ''N''-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) glutamatergic receptors found in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala. Specifically, cycloserine affects the glycine-binding sites which are important for opening these NMDA channels.
The name "cycloserine" is a misnomer because the compound has an extra nitrogen atom compared to serine. (It also has one fewer oxygen atom and one fewer hydrogen atom than serine.)