Recurrent prostate cancer
What is Recurrent prostate cancer?
Prostate cancer, also known as carcinoma of the prostate, is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. The cancer cells may spread from the prostate to other parts of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes. In later stages it can cause difficulty urinating, blood in the urine, or pain in the pelvis, back or when urinating. --> Other late symptoms may include feeling tired due to low levels of red blood cells.
Factors that increase the risk of prostate cancer include: older age, a family history of the disease, and race. About 99% of cases occur in those over the age of 50. Having a first degree relative with the disease increases the risk 2 to 3 fold. In the United States it is more common in the African American population than the Caucasian population. Other factors that may be involved include a diet high in processed meat, red meat, or milk products or low in certain vegetables. Prostate cancer is diagnosed by biopsy. Medical imaging may then be done to determine if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
Prostate cancer screening is controversial. Prostate-specific antigen testing increases cancer detection but does not decrease mortality. --> The USPSTF concludes that the potential benefits of testing do not outweigh the expected harms. Supplementation with vitamins or minerals do not appear to affect the risk.
Many cases can be safely followed with active surveillance or watchful waiting. Other treatments may include a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy or chemotherapy. When it only occurs inside the prostate it may be curable. --> Outcomes depend on a person's age and other health problems as well as how aggressive and extensive the cancer is. Most people with prostate cancer do not end up dying from the disease. The five year survival rate in the United States is 99%. It was the most common cancer in males in 84 countries, occurring more commonly in the developed world. Rates have been increasing in the developing world. Studies of males who died from unrelated causes have found prostate cancer in 30% to 70% of those over age 60.