Pulmonary emphysema

What is Pulmonary emphysema?

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), and chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), among others, is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by chronically poor airflow. It typically worsens over time. The main symptoms include shortness of breath, cough, and sputum production. Most people with chronic bronchitis have COPD.

Tobacco smoking is the most common cause of COPD, with a number of other factors such as air pollution and genetics playing a smaller role. In the developing world, one of the common sources of air pollution is from poorly vented cooking and heating fires. Long-term exposure to these irritants causes an inflammatory response in the lungs resulting in narrowing of the small airways and breakdown of lung tissue known as emphysema. The diagnosis is based on poor airflow as measured by lung function tests. In contrast to asthma, the airflow reduction does not improve significantly with the administration of medication.

COPD can be prevented by reducing exposure to the known causes. This includes efforts to decrease rates of smoking and to improve indoor and outdoor air quality. COPD treatments include quitting smoking, vaccinations, rehabilitation, and often inhaled bronchodilators and steroids. Some people may benefit from long-term oxygen therapy or lung transplantation. In those who have periods of acute worsening, increased use of medications and hospitalization may be needed.

Worldwide, COPD affects 329 million people or nearly 5% of the population. In 2013, it resulted in 2.9 million deaths up from 2.4 million deaths in 1990. The number of deaths is projected to increase due to higher smoking rates and an aging population in many countries. It resulted in an estimated economic cost of $2.1 trillion in 2010.

Questions and answers on "Pulmonary emphysema"

Autopsy report for 54 year old male says Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: cardiomegaly 450 grams severe atherosclerosis coronary artteries ,...

doctor1 MD

Welcome to HCM
Read your prob, this autosy report shows that death occure due to MI n CHD due to almost stop blood supply to herat due to sever...

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Hello, I picked up my CXR results from the office. I got a voicemail I was being referred to a pulmonologist but no further explanation. My copy of...

doctor1 MD

Brief Answer:
You may need proper clinical evaluation and HRCT of lungs.

Detailed Answer:

As you have no history of respiratory...

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What do these findings on a chest CT scan mean?

The soft tissue structures of the base of the neck are unremarkable. Mild fat haziness...

doctor1 MD

Brief Answer:
Atelectesis is partial collapse of part of lung.

Detailed Answer:
Hello dear, thanks for your question on HCM.
I can understand your...

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