Parkinsons disease

What is Parkinsons disease?

Parkinson's disease (PD, also known as idiopathic or primary parkinsonism, hypokinetic rigid syndrome (HRS), or paralysis agitans) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system mainly affecting the motor system. The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease result from the death of dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain. The cause of this cell death is poorly understood. Early in the course of the disease, the most obvious symptoms are movement-related; these include shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement and difficulty with walking and gait. Later, thinking and behavioral problems may arise, with dementia commonly occurring in the advanced stages of the disease, whereas depression is the most common psychiatric symptom. Other symptoms include sensory, sleep and emotional problems. Parkinson's disease is more common in older people, with most cases occurring after the age of 50; when it is seen in young adults, it is called young onset PD (YOPD).

The main motor symptoms are collectively called parkinsonism, or a "parkinsonian syndrome". The disease can be either primary or secondary. Primary Parkinson's disease is referred to as idiopathic (having no known cause), although some atypical cases have a genetic origin, while secondary parkinsonism is due to known causes like toxins. Many risks and protective factors have been investigated: the clearest evidence is for an increased risk of PD in people exposed to certain pesticides and a reduced risk in tobacco smokers. The pathology of the disease is characterized by the accumulation of a protein into Lewy bodies in neurons, and from insufficient formation and activity of dopamine in certain parts of the midbrain. Where the Lewy bodies are located is often related to the expression and degree of the symptoms of an individual. Diagnosis of typical cases is mainly based on symptoms, with tests such as neuroimaging being used for confirmation.

Treatments are effective at improving the early motor symptoms of the disease. This is typically with the medications L-DOPA and dopamine agonists. As the disease progresses and dopaminergic neurons continue to be lost, these drugs eventually become ineffective at treating the symptoms and at the same time produce a complication marked by involuntary writhing movements. Diet and some forms of rehabilitation have shown some effectiveness at improving symptoms. Surgery and deep brain stimulation have been used to reduce motor symptoms as a last resort in severe cases where drugs are ineffective. Research directions include investigations into new animal models of the disease and of the potential usefulness of gene therapy, stem cell transplants and neuroprotective agents. Medications to treat non-movement-related symptoms of PD, such as sleep disturbances and emotional problems, also exist.

In 2013 PD resulted in 103,000 deaths up from 44,000 deaths in 1990. The disease is named after the English doctor James Parkinson, who published the first detailed description in An Essay on the Shaking Palsy in 1817. Several major organizations promote research and improvement of quality of life of those with the disease and their families. Public awareness campaigns include Parkinson's disease day (on the birthday of James Parkinson, 11 April) and the use of a red tulip as the symbol of the disease. People with parkinsonism who have increased the public's awareness of the condition include actor Michael J. Fox, Olympic cyclist Davis Phinney, and professional boxer Muhammad Ali. Parkinson's not only affects humans, but other primates as well, which have often been used in researching the disease and testing approaches to its treatment.

Questions and answers on "Parkinsons disease"

Parkingson Disease

doctor1 MD

Hi,

I see that your query is not complete. From what I understand you are looking for some information on parkinson's disease. It will be useful...

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Hi, I am here to consult regarding Parkinson disease..my father is suffering from it.....his age is 62 years, height is 5'4 inches and weight is...

doctor1 MD

Hello,
Welcome to HCM,

Parkinson is a disease which causes certain brain cells to die. These are the cells that helps to control movement and...

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I think i might have Parkinsons disease. Today in a sudden moment my left wrist felt weak and my fingers and hand starting shaking. 2 weeks earlier...

doctor1 MD

Hi,

Thank you for posting your query.

I have noted your symptoms. First of all, I would like to reassure you that your symptoms are not suggestive...

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