What is Lymphoma?
Lymphoma is the name applied to a group of blood cell tumors that develop from lymphatic cells. The name often refers to just the cancerous ones rather than all such tumors. The enlarged lymph nodes are usually painless. The sweats are most common at night.
There are dozens of subtypes of lymphomas. About 90% of lymphomas are non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Lymphomas and leukemias are a part of the broader group of tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues.
Risk factors for Hodgkin lymphoma include infection with Epstein–Barr virus and a history of the disease in the family. Risk factors for common types of non-Hodgkin lymphomas include autoimmune diseases, HIV/AIDS, infection with human T-lymphotropic virus, eating a large amount of meat and fat, immunosuppressant medications, and some pesticides. Diagnosis, if enlarged lymph nodes are present, is usually by lymph node biopsy. Blood, urine, and bone marrow testing may also be useful in the diagnosis. Medical imaging may then be done to determine if and where the cancer has spread. Spread is most often to lungs, liver, and/or brain.
Treatment may involve one or more of the following: chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, and surgery. In some non-Hodgkin lymphomas, an increased amount of protein produced by the lymphoma cells causes the blood to become so thick that plasmapheresis is performed to remove the protein. Watchful waiting may be appropriate for certain types. The outcome depends on the subtype with some being curable and treatment prolongs survival in most. The five-year survival rate in the United States for all Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes is 85%,
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