Huntington's chorea

What is Huntington's chorea?


Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination and leads to mental decline and behavioral symptoms. Physical abilities gradually worsen until coordinated movement becomes difficult. Mental abilities generally decline into dementia. Complications such as pneumonia, heart disease, and physical injury from falls reduce life expectancy to around twenty years from the point at which symptoms begin. Physical symptoms can begin at any age from infancy to old age, but usually begin between 35 and 44 years of age. The disease may develop earlier in life in each successive generation. About 6% of cases start before the age of 21 years with an akinetic-rigid syndrome; they progress faster and vary slightly. The variant is classified as juvenile, akinetic-rigid, or Westphal variant HD.

HD is the most common genetic cause of abnormal involuntary writhing movements called chorea, which is why the disease used to be called Huntington's chorea. The disease is caused by an autosomal dominant mutation in either of an individual's two copies of a gene called Huntingtin. This means a child of an affected person typically has a 50% chance of inheriting the disease. The Huntingtin gene provides the genetic information for a protein that is also called "huntingtin". Expansion of a CAG (cytosine-adenine-guanine) triplet repeat stretch within the Huntingtin gene results in a different form of the protein, which gradually damages cells in the brain, through mechanisms that are not fully understood. Genetic testing can be performed at any stage of development, even before the onset of symptoms. This fact raises several ethical debates: the age at which an individual is considered mature enough to choose testing; whether parents have the right to have their children tested; and managing confidentiality and disclosure of test results. Genetic counseling has developed to inform and aid individuals considering genetic testing and has become a model for other genetically dominant diseases.

There is no cure for HD, and full-time care is required in the later stages of the disease. Existing pharmaceutical and non-drug treatments can relieve many of its symptoms. It is much more common in people of Western European descent than in those of Asian or African ancestry. The disease can affect both men and women.

The genetic basis of HD was discovered in 1993 by an international collaborative effort spearheaded by the Hereditary Disease Foundation. Research and support organizations, first founded in the 1960s and increasing in number, work to increase public awareness, to provide support for individuals and their families, and to promote and facilitate research. Current research directions include determining the exact mechanism of the disease, improving animal models to expedite research, clinical trials of pharmaceuticals to treat symptoms or slow the progression of the disease, and studying procedures such as stem cell therapy with the goal of repairing damage caused by the disease.

Questions and answers on "Huntington's chorea"

I am a registered nurse and I have a question regarding Huntington Chorea. My neighbor has just been diagnosed with the disease and she is 67 years...

doctor1 MD

Hi,
Thanks for writing in.

Huntington’s disease (HD) is a dominantly transmitted neurodegenerative disorder with wide variation in onset age but...

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I would like to consult about Huntington chorea and looking for a genetic...

doctor1 MD

Hi XXXXXXX

I would like to understand if you have any specific question regarding Huntington's Chorea.

As you already might understand there is...

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My nephew 21 years old is suffering from Huntingtons chorea. Is stemcell therapy a cure for that. If so wherein India it can be...

doctor1 MD

Hello. I'm Dr. Christensen.
I'm sorry your niece is having problems. (I noticed you listed the patient's gender as female, and the attached lab...

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doctor1 MD

My father in law has parkinson's disease and takes meds warfarin , he has been treated successfully for prostrate cancer and has a catheter. Last...

doctor1 MD

I am a registered nurse and I have a question regarding Huntington Chorea. My neighbor has just been diagnosed with the disease and she is 67 years...

doctor1 MD

My nephew 21 years old is suffering from Huntingtons chorea . Is stemcell therapy a cure for that. If so wherein India it can be done?

doctor1 MD

Kindly forward this query to Dr XXXXXXX Sundarakumar who reviewed this case a week back. Subsequent to your previous communication we had discussed...

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