Hand infection

What is Hand infection?

Many conditions affect the human integumentary system—the organ system covering the entire surface of the body and composed of skin, hair, nails, and related muscle and glands. The major function of this system is as a barrier against the external environment. There are two main types of human skin: glabrous skin, the nonhairy skin on the palms and soles (also referred to as the "palmoplantar" surfaces), and hair-bearing skin. Within the latter type, there are hairs in structures called pilosebaceous units, each with hair follicle, sebaceous gland, and associated arrector pili muscle. In the embryo, the epidermis, hair, and glands form from the ectoderm, which is chemically influenced by the underlying mesoderm that forms the dermis and subcutaneous tissues.

The epidermis is the most superficial layer of skin, a squamous epithelium with several strata: the stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, and stratum basale. Nourishment is provided to these layers via diffusion from the dermis, since the epidermis is without direct blood supply. The epidermis contains four cell types: keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans cells, and Merkel cells. Of these, keratinocytes are the major component, constituting roughly 95 percent of the epidermis. This stratified squamous epithelium is maintained by cell division within the stratum basale, in which differentiating cells slowly displace outwards through the stratum spinosum to the stratum corneum, where cells are continually shed from the surface. In normal skin, the rate of production equals the rate of loss; it takes about two weeks for a cell to migrate from the basal cell layer to the top of the granular cell layer, and an additional two weeks to cross the stratum corneum.

The dermis is the layer of skin between the epidermis and subcutaneous tissue, and comprises two sections, the papillary dermis and the reticular dermis. Structural components of the dermis are collagen, elastic fibers, and extrafibrillar matrix (previously called ground substance). Within these components are the pilosebaceous units, arrector pili muscles, and the eccrine and apocrine glands. The dermis contains two vascular networks that run parallel to the skin surface—one superficial and one deep plexus—which are connected by vertical communicating vessels. The function of blood vessels within the dermis is fourfold: to supply nutrition, to regulate temperature, to modulate inflammation, and to participate in wound healing.

The subcutaneous tissue is a layer of fat between the dermis and underlying fascia. The main cellular component of this tissue is the adipocyte, or fat cell. The structure of this tissue is composed of septal (i.e. linear strands) and lobular compartments, which differ in microscopic appearance. Functionally, the subcutaneous fat insulates the body, absorbs trauma, and serves as a reserve energy source.

Conditions of the human integumentary system constitute a broad spectrum of diseases, also known as dermatoses, as well as many nonpathologic states (like, in certain circumstances, melanonychia and racquet nails). Classification of these conditions often presents many nosological challenges, since underlying etiologies and pathogenetics are often not known. Therefore, most current textbooks present a classification based on location (for example, conditions of the mucous membrane), morphology (chronic blistering conditions), etiology (skin conditions resulting from physical factors), and so on. Clinically, the diagnosis of any particular skin condition is made by gathering pertinent information regarding the presenting skin lesion(s), including the location (such as arms, head, legs), symptoms (pruritus, pain), duration (acute or chronic), arrangement (solitary, generalized, annular, linear), morphology (macules, papules, vesicles), and color (red, blue, brown, black, white, yellow). Diagnosis of many conditions often also requires a skin biopsy which yields histologic information that can be correlated with the clinical presentation and any laboratory data.

Questions and answers on "Hand infection"

hi i have a temperature, am light headed and feel dizzy, no appetite and a bitter taste in mouth which has improved since yesterday, a few ago i...

doctor1 MD

hi
thanks for the enquery
u have not completed the course of antibiotic
probably for that fever recurs
so to start an antibiotic
send 2 samples of...

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I have had a swollen shoulder off and on for about 3 weeks. I think it my lymh nodes by my collar bone. On the side as my shoulder my breast also...

doctor1 MD

Hi
Th
anks for writing in.

You have mentioned about lymph nodes in the collar bone area, how big are they, about a cm or bigger? If they are...

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I have had a swollen shoulder off and on for about 3 weeks. I think it my lymh nodes by my collar bone. On the side as my shoulder my breast also...

doctor1 MD

Hi,
Thanks for writing in,
To answer your question; yes, we could be looking at a subtle infection in the breasts which could lead to this pain and...

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Recent questions on  Hand infection

doctor1 MD

It all started with a itchy, scally, burning rash on my hands. It really started irratating me after not having it looked at for over two weeks. It...

doctor1 MD

I was prescribed atarax but I did not fill the prescription yet because of insurance .I have taken 50 mg of Benadryl but am still itching like...

doctor1 MD

Hi, my daughter who just turned 4 is completely healthy but seems to produce to much saliva and will drool. There is always a wet patch on her...

doctor1 MD

I cut my pinky with a knife while cooking. Did not go to get stitches right away but later saw a doctor who prescribed antibiotics and referred me...

doctor1 MD

hi i have a temperature, am light headed and feel dizzy, no appetite and a bitter taste in mouth which has improved since yesterday, a few ago i...

doctor1 MD

i have recently been given Augmentin to clear an infection i got in my hand. I have been on this medication for 3 days now and yesterday was the...

doctor1 MD

i have recently been given Augmentin to clear an infection i got in my hand. I have been on this medication for 3 days now and yesterday was the...

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