Contusion

What is Contusion?

A bruise (layman's term), also called a contusion (medical term), is a type of hematoma of tissue in which capillaries and sometimes venules are damaged by trauma, allowing blood to seep, hemorrhage, or extravasate into the surrounding interstitial tissues. Not blanching on pressure, bruises can involve capillaries at the level of skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscle, or bone. Bruises are not to be confused with other lesions primarily known by their diameter. These lesions include petechia (< 3 mm caused typically by platelet disorders), purpura (3 mm to 1 cm caused typically by inflammation of the small blood vessels known as vasculitis), and ecchymosis (>1 cm caused typically by coagulation disorders), all of which also do not blanch on pressure, and are caused by internal bleeding not associated with trauma (e.g., platelet or coagulation disorder).

As a type of hematoma, a bruise is always caused by internal bleeding into the interstitial tissues which does not break through the skin, usually initiated by blunt trauma, which causes damage through physical compression and deceleration forces. Trauma sufficient to cause bruising can occur from a wide variety of situations including accidents, falls, and surgeries. Disease states such as insufficient or malfunctioning platelets, other coagulation deficiencies, or vascular disorders, such as venous blockage associated with severe allergies can lead to the formation of purpura (of which petechia and ecchymosis are smaller and larger classes of purpura) which is not to be confused with trauma-related bruising/contusion. If the trauma is sufficient to break the skin and allow blood to escape the interstitial tissues, the injury is not a bruise but instead a different variety of hemorrhage called bleeding. However, such injuries may be accompanied by bruising elsewhere.

Bruises often induce pain, but small bruises are not normally dangerous alone. Sometimes bruises can be serious, leading to other more life-threatening forms of hematoma, such as when associated with serious injuries, including fractures and more severe internal bleeding. The likelihood and severity of bruising depends on many factors, including type and healthiness of affected tissues. Minor bruises may be easily recognized in people with light skin color by characteristic blue or purple appearance (idiomatically described as "black and blue") in the days following the injury.

Questions and answers on "Contusion"

Caring for a external throat contusion child
YYYY@YYYY

doctor1 MD

Brief Answer:
She requires Anti inflammatory medicine.

Detailed Answer:
Hi
As it is a contusions without airway compromise,she needs anti...

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What is grade 1 sprain of the Mcl and evidence of recent patellar dislocation with anterolateral contusion of the femoral condyle and medial...

doctor1 MD

Brief Answer:
Surgery is not needed.

Detailed Answer:
Hello,
Thanks for posting your query.

The grade I sprain of MCL represents a minor disruption...

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I was getting into my car last night and I bumped my ankle bone slightly on the bottom of
the car. It doesn't seem to be swollen and I have no...

doctor1 MD

Brief Answer:
no significant injury

Detailed Answer:
Thank you for contacting HCM with your health care concerns

I an sorry to hear that you...

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Recent questions on  Contusion

doctor1 MD

I have a hand contusion after a fall. Crazy indicate no broken bone. They have me wrapping icing and elevating. My fingers become painfully numb...

doctor1 MD

I started to feel lightheaded Monday just overall dizzy and not 'myself'. Saw doctor , had normal labs (metabolic panel and cbc just very mildly...

doctor1 MD

On the left side about an inch under my bottom rib it is tender to touch. It feels like pressing on a bruise , but there is no visible bruise...

doctor1 MD

Hello, I was recently bit by a pitbull on my right breast . His teeth broke my skin at the top of my breast and at the bottom I have a small hole....

doctor1 MD

Can you explain in simple english exactly what the following MRI report means. Reference a knee injury The knee joint anatomy is well visualised....

doctor1 MD

I fell three days ago and got a large bump on my forehead and little cut. The bump has went down but Now my left eye is swollen and a pool of blood...

doctor1 MD

Female, age 42 no history of injury or illness prior to fall: I fell off a ladder five days ago. I fell about five feet and landed on my back and...

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