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Kidney stones or renal calculus is an aggregation of minerals which will pass through the urine in common. The symptoms of renal colic
are nausea, vomiting, fever, excruciating pain in the flank radiating to the groin, and sometimes with vague abdominal pain
. If stones grow to a maximum size more than 3-4mm they will obstruct the urinary passage and may cause hydronephrosis
. This in turn affects the urinary outflow and its filtration. Renal stones
may be of calcium, oxalate or uric acid, struvite stone composition.
The treatment depends on the size, number and site of the stones. Stones below 4-5mm size usually pass through the urine. But larger stones may get obstructed in the renal pelvis
, or ureter. Common modes of medical treatment is using diuretics with a drip depending on the location of the stone. Analgesics can be given for pain control.
Surgical methods include Extra Corporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy. In this method high ultrasonic waves are used to break the larger stones. The shattered stones are passed through the urine. In multiple and larger stones laser lithotripsy
, percutaneous nephrolithotomy
or a ureteral stent is advised.
Dietary factors like intake of more fluids, low sodium and calcium(in case of calcium stones), taking less animal protein will reduce the recurrence of renal caliculi.
Hope this is helpful to you.