a) A condition where lipid factors is found to be above ideal limits. Fats consumed by the body is stored and altered into various forms of lipids from liver. Some factors such as genes (familial), alcohol, liver disease, dietary factors, obesity and so on lead to increased fat production.
b) I am not aware if specific clinical symptoms and signs lead to the diagnosis of hyperlipidemia. However incidentally people with hyperlipidemia tend to be overweight, have history of alcohol consumption, have family history of hyperlipidemia. Individuals with similar history are tested for lipid levels and declared to have hyperlipidemia.
(plaque within blood vessel) is the most important complication of hyperlipidemia. Atherosclerosis leads to acute coronary syndrome
, strokes, kidney problems and various other organ problems. Inview of these complications, any individual with acute coronary syndrome, stroke and renal problems should have their lipid levels tested.
d) Primary treatment is life style and diet changes. Statin group of drugs are now-a-days also used to control lipid levels.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis
a) Inflammatory process is generally found secondary to foreign particles to protect the body against those particles. In some individuals inflammation sets in without foreign substance and this process leads to chronic long time destruction of normal body. Rheumatoid arthritis is one such autoimmune condition. The cause is not clearly found. Most doctors believe it to be due to genetic and HLA factors. Either those genetic factors or other unknown factor causes ones own immune cells release products (Rheumatoid factor
) that acts against normal tissues leading to inflammation and destruction.
b) Clinical symptoms and signs are wide spread across the body. Individuals commonly suffer with multiple joint aches, swollen joints, skin nodules/lesions and lesions under nail bed. Rarely the inflammatory changes affect other organs including lungs, liver, blood cells, kidneys, eyes and brain producing individual symptoms
c) Besides starting antiinflammatory drugs - pain killers and steroid, rheumatoid arthritis is treated with disease modifying drugs
(methotrexate), Tumour necrosis factor alfa blocker like infliximab, monoclonal antibody, interleukin blocker. Physiotherapy
and alternative therapies including surgery may be required in some cases.
3. Acute renal failure
is treated with IV fluids and dialysis if required. Besides that, it is important to identify the cause of acute renal failure and treat it. The cause may be an infection (antibiotic therapy), toxin / drug over dosage (removing the culprit / antidote if needed), renal obstruction (catheterization / stenting). Renal functions and electrolyte abnormalities should be monitored carefully during treatment.
Hope I have answered all your questions.