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Dr. Andrew Rynne

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Exp 50 years

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Vitamins

Vitamins are natural substances found in plants and animals and known as Essential nutrients for human beings.


There are 13 vitamins your body needs. They are vitamins A, C, D, E, K and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate). You can usually get all your vitamins from the foods you eat. The vitamin D and vitamin K are synthesized in our body.


Vitamins are divided in to fat soluble vitamins and water soluble vitamins. Fat soluble vitamins are vitamin A and D. Fat soluble vitamins are B vitamins, Vitamin C, vitamin K.

Vitamins are essential for life and maintennce of normal health. They are important factor for enzyme system. They are very essentail for body functionslike energy production, production of blood cells, reproduction, neurological functions and in synthesis of fats, aminoacids,


The best way to get enough vitamins is to eat a balanced diet with a variety of foods.

Fat soluble vitamins:


Vitamin A: Vitamin A is a fat soluble vitamin. It occurs naturally in the form of carotene from plant sources and as retinol from animal sources. Vitamin A is essential for normal maintenance and function of body tissues, for vision, cellular integrity, immunity and growth.

Animal sources of vitamin A: Cod liver oil, shark liver oil,liver, butter, ghee and white of an egg.

Plant sources of vitamin A: Carrots, green leafy vegetables like spinach and yellow red vegetables like pumpkins, mangoes, oranges, papaya etc.

Vitmain A deficiency causes night blindness, corneal ulcers, conjunctival dryness. Skin become scly and toad like called phrynoderma.

Excess of vitmain A causes a condition called pseudotumor cerebri charecterized by headache, vomiting, dizziness, increased intracranial tension.


Vitamin D: It is also a fat soluble vitamin. It helps absorption of calcium and phosphorous in the intestines. It also helps in bone mineralization.

Sources of Vitamin D: Fish, liver, oils, egg yolk, butter.

Deficiency of vitmain D causes a condotion called Rickets.

Water soluble vitamins

Vitamin C: It is also called ascorbic acid. It is essential for formation of collagen and in development of teeth, bonesVitamin C is a water soluble vitamin that is required for healthy muscles, skin, bones, and cartilage. It is an important ingredient for the formation of many hormones and neurotransmitters. Vitamin C helps form red blood cells which aids in preventing hemorrhaging and speeds up the healing of wounds. It is also essential for healthy functioning of the immune system and the adrenal glands, which help our bodies react to stress.

Sources of vitamin C: Citrus fruit like oranges, sweet lime. Vegetables like tomatoe3s, cabbage, leafy greens and sprouts. Animal sources are liver, kidney. Vitmain C is destroyed by cooking. Sever vitmain c deficiency caused scurvy which is charecterized by pain in bones


Vitamin E: Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin. It ats as anti-oxidant. It protects membrane phospholipids from free radical induced damage. It has anticancer effects.

Sources of vitmain E: Nuts, whole wheat grains, vegetable oils.


Vitamin B: These are group of vitmains which are water soluble. Some of the vitmain B vitmains are thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, cobalamine, folic acid etc.

Functions of Vitmain B complex group:

  • They are important fot the nerve conduction.
  • They help in metabolism, synthesis of gycogen and in development of blood cells.
  • They are important in cell growth and help in respiration of cells.
  • They help in normal functioning of skin, intestinal tract and nervous system.
  • They help in growth of the infants.

 

Sources: Whole grain cereals, pulses, meat, fish, green vegetables, liver, eggs, milk, yeast etc.


Vitamin K:

It is needed for generation of several blood clotting factors inliver and healps in formation of prothrombin which is help ful in blood clotting. Deficiency leads to coagulation defects. Vegetables are good sources of vitamin K.

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