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Dr. Andrew Rynne
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Dr. Andrew Rynne

Family Physician

Exp 50 years

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Article Home Children's Health Typhoid fever in children

Typhoid fever in children

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Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria. Typhoid fever spreads through contaminated food and water or through close contact with someone who's infected.

Typhoid fever in children

Symptoms:

  • Fever, often as high as 103 or 104 F (39 or 40 C)
  • Headache
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • A sore throat
  • Abdominal pain
  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • Rash

The risk factors of typhoid fever

Have close contact with someone who is infected or has recently been infected with typhoid fever
Have an immune system weakened by medications such as corticosteroids or diseases such as HIV/AIDS
Drink water contaminated by sewage that contains S. typhi

How typhoid spreads

Oral transmission via food or beverages handled by an individual who chronically sheds the bacteria through stool or, less commonly, urine.
Hand-to-mouth transmission after using a contaminated toilet and neglecting hand hygiene
Oral transmission via sewage-contaminated water or shellfish (especially in the developing world).

Diagnosis

Complications of typhoid fever

Intestinal perforation or bleeding: The symptoms are severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and bloodstream infection (sepsis). This life-threatening emergency requires immediate medical care.

Other possible complications include

  • Inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis)
  • Pneumonia
  • Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis)
  • Kidney or bladder infections
  • Infections of the spine (osteomyelitis)
  • Infection and inflammation of the membranes and fluid surrounding your brain and spinal cord (meningitis)
  • Psychiatric problems such as delirium, hallucinations and paranoid psychosis.

Treatment

  • Antibiotics: The commonly used antibiotics are ciprofloxacin, cephalosporin’s, sulfamethoxazxole-trimethoprim, ampicillin, chlormphenicol etc.
  • Other measures:
  • Drinking fluids. This helps prevent the dehydration that results from a prolonged fever and diarrhea.
  • Eating a healthy diet. No bulky, high-calorie meals can help replace the nutrients you lose when you're sick.

Prevention of typhoid fever

  • Wash your hands. Frequent hand washing is the best way to control infection. Wash your hands thoroughly with hot, soapy water, especially before eating or preparing food and after using the toilet.
  • Avoid drinking untreated water.
  • Avoid raw fruits and vegetables.
  • Choose hot foods. Avoid food that's stored or served at room temperature. Steaming hot foods are best.
  • Clean household items daily. Clean toilets, door handles, telephone receivers and water taps at least once a day with a household cleaner and paper towels or disposable clothes.
  • Typhoid vaccines.