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Dr. Andrew Rynne
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Dr. Andrew Rynne

Family Physician

Exp 50 years

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Article Home Women's Health Ovarian cyst

Ovarian cyst

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Ovarian cyst is the collection of fluid covered by a thin wall inside the ovary. Most ovarian cysts are harmless or benign. It can be seen in all ages in women but it is more common in women of reproductive age.

 

Ovarian cyst can occur during the process of ovulation. During ovulation the follicle develops. During ovulation the follicles will rupture and release the ovum. If the follicles fail to break and release the egg, the fluid stays in the follicle and forms a cyst

Clinical types

  • Functional cysts or simple cysts: These cysts occur as a part of normal menstruation. These are Graafian, Luteal and hemorrhagic cysts. These cysts occur during ovulation. Sometimes if the egg is not released the ovary fill up the fluid and for cyst.

  • Dermoid cyst

  • Chocolate cysts of ovary

  • Pathological cysts like polycystic ovarian syndrome, cysts associated with tumors like ovarian cancer

Signs and symptoms

  • Pain in the lower abdomen, pelvis, vagina, lower back
  • Sever pain occurs if the cyst undergoes torsion
  • Fullness or heaviness in the abdomen
  • Pain during the periods
  • Irregular periods
  • Abnormal uterine bleeding
  • Spotting between periods
  • Infertility
  • Delayed periods
  • Pain during bowel movements
  • Pelvic pain
  • Pain during intercourse

Tests and diagnosis

Treatment:

  • Pain killers like acetaminophen, ibuprofen can be given if there is pain
  • Warm bath or hot water bottle can be applied to the lower abdomen
  • Hormonal contraceptives are given some time to shrink the cysts
  • Surgical removal of cyst is advised if the cyst is more than 5 cm
  • Oopherectomy: Removal of ovaries.

Complications of ovarian cyst

  • Bleeding

  • Rupture of cyst

  • Torsion of cyst