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Dr. Andrew Rynne
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Dr. Andrew Rynne

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Article Home Adult and Senior Health Medication and Prevention of Hypertension

Medication and Prevention of Hypertension

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Hypertension is also known as high blood pressure which is a medical condition in which a person?s blood pressure in arteries in the body remains chronically elevated. Many types of hypertension are there like systemic or arterial hypertension and portal hypertension and others but the word Hypertension in general implies to systemic or arterial hypertension.

 

Various measures which will help in hypertension are -

 

  • Weight reduction and regular aerobic exercise like brisk walking are the first steps in treating mild to moderate hypertension. Regular exercise improves blood flow and helps to reduce resting heart rate and blood pressure. Low intensity exercise is more effective in lowering blood pressure than higher intensity exercise.
  • Low dietary sugar intake
  • Reducing salt in the diet is a effective measure as it decreases blood pressure in more than 30% of people salt substitute can be used to reduce salt intake.
  • Diet rich in fruits and vegetables and low-fat or fat-free dairy foods also known as dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) is helpful in reducing the blood pressure.
  • Increase in daily calcium intake has the benefit of increasing dietary potassium, which counteracts the effect of sodium and act on the kidney to decrease blood pressure. It is believed to be a effective therapy
  • Tobacco use in any form should be stopped. Alcohol intake is also associated with the cases of increased hypertension. Abstinence from these will help in controlling blood pressure effectively.
  • Stress reduction measures like relaxation therapy, meditation and mind body relaxation techniques by reducing environmental stress such as high sound levels and over-illumination are particularly helpful in fighting with high blood pressure. Jacobson's Progressive Muscle Relaxation and biofeedback are also effective methods.

Medications for hypertension are called antihypertensive act by various means lowering blood pressure. The aim of treatment should be blood pressure control to <140/90 mmHg for most patients, and lower in certain special conditions like diabetes or kidney disease.

 

Commonly used drugs are -

 

  • ACE inhibitors - These include captopril, enalapril, fosinopril, lisinopril, quinapril, ramipril
  • Angiotensin II receptor antagonists are if side effects are more with ACE inhibitors like telmisartan, irbesartan , losartan , valsartan , candesartan
  • Calcium channel blockers - These include nifedipine, amlodipine, diltiazem, verapamil
  • Diuretics - These include bendroflumethiazide, chlortalidone, hydrochlorothiazide, furosemide or low-dosages of spironolactone
  • Alpha blockers - These include prazosin, terazosin, Doxazosin
  • Beta blockers - These include atenolol, labetalol, metoprolol, and propranolol
  • Direct renin inhibitors like aliskiren are also prescribed frequently