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Dr. Andrew Rynne

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Article Home Children's Health Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children

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It is a chronic condition that affects many children. Every one shows some behaviors at time, but if ADHD lasts more than 6 months and causes problems in school, at home. The characters of ADHD are inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. It is common in boys than girls.

Signs and symptoms of ADHD:

  • Fail to pay close attention to details or makes mistakes in school work or activities.
  • Trouble in sustaining attention during tasks or play.
  • Do not listen even when spoken directly.
  • Difficulty in following through instructions and fails to finish school work, chores or other tasks.
  • Problems in organizing tasks or activities.
  • Avoids tasks which require sustained mental effort like school work or home work.
  • Frequently looses needed items like books, pencils, toys.
  • Easily distractible.
  • Forgetfulness.
  • Signs and symptoms of hyperactive and impulsive behavior include:
  • Fidgets or squirms frequently.
  • Leaves the seat in classroom or in other situations when seating is expected.
  • Runs or climbs excessively.
  • Difficulty in playing quietly.
  • Excessive talks.
  • Blurts out the answers before completion of questions.
  • Difficulty in waiting for his turn frequently.
  • Often interrupts or intrudes on other’s conversations or games.

Causes of ADHD:

  • Altered brain function and anatomy.
  • Hereditary: Often ADHD runs in family.
  • Maternal smoking, drug use and exposure to toxins during pregnancy are associated with ADHD.
  • Childhood exposure to environmental toxins like exposure to lead.

Risk factors for ADHD:

Complications of ADHD:

  • Academic failure and judgment by other children and adults.
  • Affects interpersonal relationships.
  • Tend to have more accidents and injuries of all kinds than do the children who do not have ADHD.
  • Trouble in interacting with peers and adults.
  • Increased risk of alcohol, drug abuse and other delinquent behavior.
  • Anxiety.
  • Depression.
  • Conduct disorder like stealing, fighting, destroying property and harming people or animals
  • Learning disabilities.

Treatment of ADHD:

  • Psycho stimulant medications like Methylphenidate, Derxtroamphetamine-amphetamine, Dextroamphetamine.
  • Non stimulant medications lie Atomoxetine.
  • Other medications like antidepressants, Clonidine.
  • Psychotherapy.
  • Behavior therapy.
  • Family therapy.
  • Social skills training.