Kidney failure can occur from an acute situation or from chronic problems.
In acute renal failure
, kidney function is lost rapidly and can occur from a variety of insults to the body. The list of causes is often categorized based on where the injury has occurred.
Prerenal causes (pre=before + renal=kidney) causes are due to decreased blood supply to the kidney. Examples of prerenal causes are:
(low blood volume) due to blood loss
from loss of body fluid (vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, fever )
* Poor intake of fluids
* Medication, for example, diuretics ("water pills") may cause excessive water loss.
* Loss of blood supply to the kidney due to obstruction of the renal artery
Renal causes (damage directly to the kidney itself) include:
* Sepsis: The body's immune system is overwhelmed from infection and causes inflammation and shutdown of the kidneys. This usually does not occur with urinary tract