I can see that you and your wife are concerned with the current problem and are searching for the correct treatment.
If the lump is palpable, then core needle biopsy
is the best method to know the nature of the lump. It is surprising that the surgeon is not opting for that even if it was not possible the first time. It can be done under ultrasound
guidance to improve its yield.
Needle localisation is only indicated in cases where the lump is not palpable - usually seen when a lump or calcification is detected on a mammogram
Once the biopsy report is out, then the further management would be decided. The management can vary from breast conservation surgery (which is cosmetically better) to a mastectomy
I hope I have answered your query. Please feel free to clarify any further query if you want.