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Diabetes has implications for acute and chronic wound healing
. Type 2 (non-insulin dependent) diabetes continues to increase in incidence and is more prevalent in older patients, in whom age-related skin changes already negatively impact on the healing process.
Complications resulting from type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 diabetes include neuropathy and ischaemia, which may lead to foot ulceration . Patients with unhealed ulcers have an increased risk of infection, and lower-limb amputation
is usually preceded by foot ulceration.
Maintaining normoglycemia (normal blood sugar levels) is important as hyperglycemia
has been correlated with impaired wound healing . In order to optimize wound-healing potential, patients should be encouraged to achieve target levels for glycated hemoglobin
(HbA1c). The target for glycated hemoglobin is 7.2 per cent in type 1 diabetes
. For people with type 2 diabetes, the target is similar at 7 per cent . Patients need to be actively involved in this process and require information and support from health care teams.
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