Welcome and thanks for posting your query to Healthcare Magic.
After reading your query it appears the possibility of "Callosities" or "Planter wart".
Both are simple and treatable conditions. But the former is just because of pressure and friction over the local area while the latter is due to a viral infection. In both the condition there is pain at the pressure point during walking which becomes more painful as the day progresses.
In viral warts
there is more of the tendency to have more of infection at surrounding areas.
For the best of the possibility and treatment you need to meet a dermatologist
. The treatment is very simple with frequency ablation or by chemical cauterization
For the betterment in steel toed shoes you need to visit "Physical Medicine department " at medical college level. The experts will guide you best for the type of modification needed for improvement in your condition.
Hope these informations will help.
"With good health wishes"
Dr Sanjay Kumar Kanodia
MD (Dermatology & STDs)