Agenesis of the corpus callosum
(ACC) is a rare birth defect
(congenital disorder) in which there is a complete or partial absence of the corpus callosum.
Callosal disorders can be diagnosed only through a brain scan. They may be diagnosed through an MRI, CT scan, prenatal ultrasound
, or prenatal MRI.
Agenesis of the corpus callosum is caused by disruption to development of the fetal brain between the 3rd and 12th weeks of pregnancy
. In most cases, it is not possible to know what caused an individual to have ACC or another callosal disorder.
Signs and symptoms of ACC and other callosal disorders vary greatly among individuals. However, some characteristics common in individuals with callosal disorders include vision impairments, low muscle tone
), poor motor coordination, delays in motor milestones such as sitting and walking, low perception of pain, delayed toilet training, and chewing and swallowing difficulties
There are currently no specific medical treatments for callosal disorders, but individuals with ACC and other callosal disorders may benefit from a range of developmental therapies, educational support, and services.
Prognosis varies depending on the type of callosal abnormality and associated conditions or syndromes. It is not possible for the corpus callosum to regenerate (i.e., the corpus callosum will not regrow) although some individuals with callosal disorders have average intelligence and lead normal lives.