What is the pathophysiology Of COPD?
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What is the pathophysiology Of COPD? Please answer it in Layman's terms. Why do we give less O2 in patient's wit COPD? Also, How do we give o2 via??? Could you give me the pathophysiology, signs and symptoms, complications and treatment of DEHYDRATION? Please explain layman's terms. Thank you. wHAT IS THE PAHTOPHYSIOLOGY, SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS, COMPLICATIONS AND TREATMENT OF ACS OR ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME)? tHANK YOU
Posted Sun, 16 Feb 2014 in Lung and Chest disorders
Answered by Dr. Prasad 6 hours later
Brief Answer: Details explained below... Detailed Answer: I shall try and explain the details about the three condition. 1. About COPD a) In simple terms COPD is a condition that occurs as lungs loose its capacity to breathe out air. The cells that form individual alveolus gets damaged irreversible making it incapable of breathing out air. Various toxins including smoke induce irreversible inflammation which over a period of time develop into COPD. b) Oxygen therapy is needed when lungs fail (respiratory failure) to maintain enough oxygen saturation. And respiratory failure is the end result of COPD. Our organs gets damaged as saturation level fall below 60%; however optimum function needs saturation above 80%. That being said respiratory failure is classified as type 1 and type 2. Too much oxygenation produces detrimental effects if a patient suffers from type 2 respiratory failure. So to be precise less O2 is given to COPD patients with type 2 respiratory failure. c) Oxygen can be delivered through face mask, nasal prongs or canula. Severe cases will need assisted ventilation through ventilators. 2. Dehydration a) As you would know body is made of 80% water. As body is deprived of water, it alters various metabolites (salts and hormones), blood circulation is impaired and organs starts to fail. Water deprived state associated with metabolic and circulatory disturbance forms dehydrated state. b) Thirst and dryness (of skin and mucosa) are the initial symptoms of dehydration. Gradually body tries to prevent water loss by stopping urination and perspiration. If one doesn't replenish water, it leads to various other symptoms such as fatigue, dizziness, hypotension, lethargy, altered consciousness, delirium and so on. c) Complications of dehydration is secondary to metabolic changes and blood flow impairment. It can affect all body organs. The first to be affected are brain - altered consciousness, delirium, convulsions, coma and kidney (renal shutdown and failure). Before other organs get damaged, death intervenes. d) Treatment is clear; replenish fluids and correct the salt disturbance. This can be done either through oral supplementation or iv fluid therapy. Besides that, patient should be screened for complications and treated accordingly. 3) Acute coronary syndrome a) Heart unlike other organs needs to be pumping continuously to keep a person alive. Since it is constantly functioning it needs good blood supply. Even if blood flow is impaired transiently it can result in severe and catastrophic damages. Blood supply obstruction leading to hypoxia and various grades of tissue and cardiac muscle damage. Before hypoxia leads to various tissue and muscle damage person suffers with severe physical symptoms of pain. b) Symptoms of ACS is based on the severity of tissue and muscle damage. Chest pain, radiating pain, increased perspiration, palpipation, breathing difficulty, anxiety are most common symptoms. c) Vasodilators to improve blood flow and antiplatelet drugs to prevent future ACS are the primary treatment of ACS. Besides these other treatment involved treating risk factors and clearing obstructed blood vessels (angioplasty / stents) may be needed. Hope I have answered all your questions. Regards
Follow-up: What is the pathophysiology Of COPD? 21 minutes later
Would you be able to give me the pathophysiology, signs and symptoms, complications and treatment of INCREASED LIPIDS NAD RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS? What is the treatment for ACUTE RENAL FAILURE? PLEASE AND THANK YOU.
Answered by Dr. Prasad 2 hours later
Brief Answer: Details below... Detailed Answer: Hi, 1. Hyperlipidemia (Increased lipids) a) A condition where lipid factors is found to be above ideal limits. Fats consumed by the body is stored and altered into various forms of lipids from liver. Some factors such as genes (familial), alcohol, liver disease, dietary factors, obesity and so on lead to increased fat production. b) I am not aware if specific clinical symptoms and signs lead to the diagnosis of hyperlipidemia. However incidentally people with hyperlipidemia tend to be overweight, have history of alcohol consumption, have family history of hyperlipidemia. Individuals with similar history are tested for lipid levels and declared to have hyperlipidemia. c) Atherosclerosis (plaque within blood vessel) is the most important complication of hyperlipidemia. Atherosclerosis leads to acute coronary syndrome, strokes, kidney problems and various other organ problems. Inview of these complications, any individual with acute coronary syndrome, stroke and renal problems should have their lipid levels tested. d) Primary treatment is life style and diet changes. Statin group of drugs are now-a-days also used to control lipid levels. 2. Rheumatoid arthritis a) Inflammatory process is generally found secondary to foreign particles to protect the body against those particles. In some individuals inflammation sets in without foreign substance and this process leads to chronic long time destruction of normal body. Rheumatoid arthritis is one such autoimmune condition. The cause is not clearly found. Most doctors believe it to be due to genetic and HLA factors. Either those genetic factors or other unknown factor causes ones own immune cells release products (Rheumatoid factor) that acts against normal tissues leading to inflammation and destruction. b) Clinical symptoms and signs are wide spread across the body. Individuals commonly suffer with multiple joint aches, swollen joints, skin nodules/lesions and lesions under nail bed. Rarely the inflammatory changes affect other organs including lungs, liver, blood cells, kidneys, eyes and brain producing individual symptoms c) Besides starting antiinflammatory drugs - pain killers and steroid, rheumatoid arthritis is treated with disease modifying drugs (methotrexate), Tumour necrosis factor alfa blocker like infliximab, monoclonal antibody, interleukin blocker. Physiotherapy and alternative therapies including surgery may be required in some cases. 3. Acute renal failure is treated with IV fluids and dialysis if required. Besides that, it is important to identify the cause of acute renal failure and treat it. The cause may be an infection (antibiotic therapy), toxin / drug over dosage (removing the culprit / antidote if needed), renal obstruction (catheterization / stenting). Renal functions and electrolyte abnormalities should be monitored carefully during treatment. Hope I have answered all your questions. Regards
Follow-up: What is the pathophysiology Of COPD? 17 minutes later
Thank you so much.
Answered by Dr. Prasad 1 minute later
Brief Answer: Welcome... Detailed Answer: Please close this discussion and leave your feed backs. I would appreciate if you can do that. Good luck!!