Risk factors for HIV/AIDS
Unprotected sexual intercourse
Unprotected vaginal, anal or oral sex with multiple partners (heterosexual, homosexual or bisexual)
Unprotected sex with HIV-positive partner
During sex, HIV can be transmitted through cuts and tears on the penis, vagina, or anus.
Through these cuts and tears, infected blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and anal fluids may enter the uninfected person's body.
Cuts and scrapes are more likely during anal sex, forced sex, dry sex, or when women are very young (because their cervixes are not fully developed and therefore more likely to rip or tear during intercourse).
Role of STD’s in HIV/AIDS
STDs probably increase susceptibility to HIV infection by two different mechanisms.
Genital ulcers (e.g., syphilis, herpes, or chancroid) result in breaks in the genital tract lining or skin. These breaks create a portal of entry for HIV.
Non-ulcerative STDs (e.g., chlamydia, syphilis, herpes, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis) increase the concentration of cells in genital secretions that can serve as targets for HIV (e.g., CD4+ cells).
When HIV-infected individuals are also infected with other STDs, they are more likely to have HIV in their genital secretions.
HIV in semen is as much as 10 times higher in men who are infected with both gonorrhea and HIV than in men infected only with HIV.
Sharing or injecting drug use paraphernalia, such as needles and syringes, increases the risk of HIV transmission.
People who use illegal injectable drugs are also more likely to have STI/STD, which increase their risk for both contracting and transmitting HIV.
Mixing sex, drugs and alcohol interact in many ways to increase a person's risk of getting or giving HIV.
The use of these substances can increase sexual desire and enhance underlying personality characteristics, such as and sexual compulsivity.
Blood transfusion or received blood a blood clotting factors before 1985.
Mother- to- fetus/infant transmission (vertical transmission)
Psychological risk factors
HIV/AIDS is not transmitted by hugging, kissing, dancing or shaking hands — with someone who has HIV or AIDS.