Diarrhea in children
It is the common bowel related diseases in children.
Symptoms of diarrhea:
When to seek medical help:
- If there is less urinary output.
- If there is fee r more than 102F.
- If there is bloody or black stools.
- If there is dry mouth, no tears during crying and other signs of dehydration.
- If the child is sleepy, drowsy, unresponsive or irritable.
- Sunken appearance of abdomen, eyes or cheeks.
- Loss of skin turgor.
Causes for diarrhea:
- Viruses like Norwalk virus, cytomegalo virus, Rota virus, viral hepatitis. Viruses are the common causes for diarrhea in children.
- Bacteria and parasites: Contaminated food and water transmit bacteria and parasites to the body. Parasites causing diarrhea are Gardia lamblia, cryptosporidium can cause diarrhea.
- The common bacteria involved in diarrhea re salmonella, E,Coli, shigella etc.
- Medications like antibiotics.
- Other causes: Lactose intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome.
- Artificial sweeteners like sorbitol, mannitol found in chewing gums can cause diarrhea.
Types of diarrhea:
- Secretary diarrhea seen in cholera.
- Osmotic diarrhea: Occurs due to excess of water loss. It also occur in maldigestion.
- Inflammatory diarrhea: Caused by viral or parasitic infections.. In this the lining of intestine is damaged and loses protein rich fluids.
- Medications: Antibiotics are advised for bacterial diarrhea.
- Replacement of fluids using oral rehydration solution.
- Treating the underlying conditions.
- Give plenty of clear liquids like water, soups, ganji. Avoid apple or pear juices.
- Give semisolid and low fiber foods like toast, eggs, rice or chicken.
- Avoid foods like dairy products, fatty foods, high-fiber foods.
- Give fruits like banana.
- Give more of curds, butter-milk.
Prevention of diarrhea:
- Use pasteurized dairy products.
- Serve food fresh or refrigerate the food so that it can be served after reheating.
- Drink boiled water.