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Importance of urine analysis

Urine analysis is a simple procedure in which a small amount of urine is collected in a clean bottle of 5 to 10 ml and its quality and quantity is assessed for various health care problems usually done in clinics, laboratories, hospitals and other health care setups; it is very useful in diagnosing, screening, and treating of diseased conditions

 

Procedure of urine sample collection:

Patient is given a clean bottle of 5 to 10 ml enclosed with a cap and informed to clean the surrounding area with swab, and while voiding urine the person collects a small quantity of fresh morning sample in that bottle, usually a midstream sample is collected and handed over the enclosed bottle along with patient details on it to the laboratory or testing site within an hour of collection

Methods of urine analysis:

  1. Naked eye testing and smell: Colour and cloudiness of the urine is noted through naked eye. Yellow, amber, pale or red are the few colour types which can be noted and Clear or cloudy consistency and also the smell of urine is sensed which is of useful importance
  2. Protein testing: Take around 1 ml of urine sample in 2 separate test tubes. Put one tube into the hot water bath, and leave the other at room temperature. After a few minutes, take the test tube out of the water bath, and compare the heated and unheated urine. If the heated sample is cloudier, it contains protein.
  3. pH testing: Dip a piece of universal indicator paper into the urine. Quickly take it out, and leave it for 30 seconds. Compare the new colour with the pH colour chart, and note the pH
  4. Testing for glucose: This test is used to know whether there is any presence of glucose in the urine, if yes then it can indicate disease conditions like Diabetes
  5. Urine dipstick Test: It is a long strip which has several squares of different colors on it. Each square is used to interpret urinalysis. The strip is dipped completely in the urine sample and color changes are noted after 5 minutes. The squares on the dipstick represent the following components in the urine-
  6. Specific gravity, pH, protein in the urine, glucose, ketone bodies, blood, leukocyte, nitrite, bilirubin and urobilinogen
  7. Microscopic evaluation: Cells, Cellular debris, Casts, Bacteria and crystals or small structures
  8. Culture and sensitivity: This is used for culture of certain specific bacteria where the medicines are not effective in the treatment and the drug sensitivity.

Uses:

  • It is used more commonly to diagnose urine tract infections like cystitis, Prostatitis, Urethral infections etc
  • To diagnose kidney infections like pyelonephritis, Glomerulonephritis
  • To diagnose various other diseases like pyuria, Rhabdomyosis, Metabolic disorders, bleeding disorders, inherited disorders etc
  • To screen chronic diseases like Diabetes mellitus and Hypertension
  • In combination with other tests for evaluation of kidney stones, muscle protein breakdown and inflammation of kidney structures
  • In medico legal cases where drugs have been taken and misused
  • For interpretation of medicines and its efficacy.

 

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