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Heart valve disease

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Heart valve disease is a condition in which the valves of the heart will not function properly. Ebstein?s anamoly is abnormalities of the tricuspid valve.There are four valves in the heart, mitral or bicuspid, tricuspid, aortic and pulmonary.

 

The valves of heart are tricuspid valve, pulmonary valve, mitral valve and aortic valve. These heart valves are flaps like structures which open and close with each heart beat. They help the flow of the blood in correct direction through the chambers of the heart and the rest of the body. Inflammation of the heart valves is called endocarditis.

Causes of heart valve disease

 

 

Signs and symptoms

  • Chest pain
  • Palpitations
  • Headaches
  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Dizziness
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Low or high blood pressure

 

Types of heart valve disease

  • Regurgitation or back flow which occurs when a valve does not close tightly. In this condition the blood will leak in to the chamber instead of flowing to the heart or the artery. This mainly affects the mitral valve
  • Stenosis: In the condition the flaps of the valve are thicken, stiffen or fuse together. This prevents the heart valve from opening fully and thereby there will be no enough blood flowing through the valve.
  • Atresia: It occurs when the heart valve lacks opening for blood to pass through the valves.

 

Other types of heart disease

Congenital heart valve disease is the valvular disease which occurs before birth. It commonly involves pulmonary and aortic valves.

Acquired heart valve disease: In this the heart valve is normal at first. Later it can produce problems due to disease. This type commonly involves aortic and mitral valves.

 

Valve

Stenosis

Insufficiencies

Aortic valve

Aortic valve stenosis

Aortic incompetence

Mitral valve

Mitral stenosis

Mitral incompetence

Tricuspid valve

Tricuspid stenosis

Tricuspid incompetence

Pulmonary valve

Pulmonary stenosis

Pulmonary incompetence

 

Complications of valvular disease

 

  • Heart failure
  • Stroke
  • Blood clots
  • Sudden death
  • Cardiac arrest

 

Tests and diagnosis

  • Electrocardiogram
  • Chest x-ray
  • Cardiac catheterization
  • Transesophageal echocardiogram
  • Radionuclide scans
  • Magnetic resonance imaging.

 

Treatment

 

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