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Food Allergies

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Food allergy is an adverse immune response to food proteins. The most common food allergies in adults are sea foods and dairy products (shellfish, peanuts, fish, and eggs) and the most common food allergies in children are milk, eggs, peanuts, and tree nuts

 

 Signs and symptoms

 Clinical types

  IgE- mediated (classic)

 Non- IgE mediated

  • Food protein allergy

  • Milk soy protein intolerance

  • Hiener syndrome

Most common food allergies (Big 8)

  • Dairy allergy

  • Egg allergy

  • Peanut allergy

  • Tree nut allergy

  • Sea food allergy

  • Shellfish allergy

  • Soy allergy

  • Wheat allergy

Tests and diagnosis

  • Skin prick test

  • IgE antibodies by RAST techniques (Radio allegro sorbent assay)

  • Upper GI endoscopy and biopsy

  • Colonoscopy and biopsy

Differential diagnosis

  • Lactose intolerance

  • Celiac disease

  • Irritable bowel syndrome

  • C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency

Prevention

  • Breastfeeding for at least 6 months, compared with infants feeding with formula feeds made with cow milk protein, prevents or delays the occurrence of atopic or allergic dermatitis, cow milk allergy, and wheezing and dyspnea in early childhood.

  • Read food labels properly and carefully and know which ingredients you should avoid.

Medical treatment

In severe reaction, air ways (breathing), blood pressure maintenance is the first priority.

Oxygen by nasal and facial mask

In severe respiratory distress, mechanical ventilation is required

IV fluids (saline) to boost blood pressure

Medications

Epinephrine- in severe reactions (anaphylaxis)

Antihistaminic- Diphenhydramine, Cetrizine, Loratidine, Fexofenadine

Corticosteroids- to reduce allergic reactions and inflammation

 

 

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