Bleeding during sex may be noticed in the course of, or after intercourse (post-coital bleeding). It is not a normal phenomenon and warrants medical attention. If you notice that you tend to bleed after making love, consult a doctor at the earliest.
Some common causes of bleeding during sex
The causes of post coital bleeding can be broadly divided into four groups:
Cancerous or precancerous conditions
* Cervical cancer
* Cervical dysplasia
* Vaginal cancer
Trauma or injury
* A cut or sore in the vagina
* Vigorous sex resulting in injury
* Vaginal dryness resulting in injury during normal sex
* Intrauterine devices can cause bleeding from irritation and friction
* Lowered estrogen level as in perimenopausal or post menopausal woman.
* Drying and narrowing of the vagina
* Hymen rupture during first intercourse — this is normal and should not cause
* Chlamydia infection
* Gonorrhea infection
* Vaginitis or cervicitis
* Trichomonas vaginalis
* Vaginal yeast infection
* An abnormal growth in the vagina or cervix such as polyps
* Endometritis or adenomyosis
* Uterine polyps
* Fibroid tumors
Your doctor may need to do a few tests to determine the cause of bleeding.
Vaginal or cervical swab
Vaginal speculum examination
Dilatation and curettage
Treatment depends on the underlying cause. If it is due to infections treatment of infection is required. If it is due to vaginal dryness at menopause, use of lubricants is advised.
Information for women
It is important for you to understand the following points about post-coital bleeding.
Commonest cause or causes of bleeding
Whether further investigation is indicated
Information about investigations, if needed
The chances of a serious cause like cancer
Chances of other causes being present
When to come for follow-up if symptoms persist or recur
Cervical smear is a screening test that will indicate the cancer in 80 to 90% cases but may miss it in the remaining 10 to 20% of them.